May 03

How do meet and maintain a serious relationship with a professional model?

Question by Mel: How do meet plus keep the severe relationship with a pro model?
Models are amongst the star plus center class social circles. Its difficult to understand what to state or should you could state anything to a girl who’s cause plus job is display the best beauty. I learn its work. I’ve participated about a pic shoot plus film set.

Best answer:

Answer by Pr!nc355
lol are u severe???? when u wish To date somebody simply b/c of their social status or job than u are weak…get ur fat up u ought to be trying to date somebody b/c they are a gorgeous individual (inside plus out) not b/c they are a model…u are furthermore stereo typing which all models are very….( certain are not appealing, nevertheless many are)… consider ur motives plus be urself

What do we think? Answer below!

Apr 10

Nice Where Professional Models Meet photos

A few nice where professional models meet images I found:


where professional models meet
Image by Smelly Feet Free Photos Art & Fun
A city is a relatively large and permanent settlement. Although there is no agreement on how a city is distinguished from a town within general English language meanings, many cities have a particular administrative, legal, or historical status based on local law.

For example, in the American state of Massachusetts an article of incorporation approved by the local state legislature distinguishes a city government from a town. In the United Kingdom and parts of the Commonwealth of Nations, a city is usually a settlement with a royal charter. Historically, in Europe, a city was understood to be an urban settlement with a cathedral. This distinction also applies in England (but not to the entire United Kingdom), where the presence of a cathedral church distinguishes a ‘city’ from a ‘town’ (which has a parish church).

Cities generally have complex systems for sanitation, utilities, land usage, housing, and transportation. The concentration of development greatly facilitates interaction between people and businesses, benefiting both parties in the process. A big city or metropolis usually has associated suburbs and exurbs. Such cities are usually associated with metropolitan areas and urban areas, creating numerous business commuters traveling to urban centers for employment. Once a city expands far enough to reach another city, this region can be deemed a conurbation or megalopolis.

Contents
1 Origins
1.1 Theories
1.1.1 Agricultural primacy
1.1.2 Urban primacy
1.2 Causes of establishment
2 Geography
3 History
3.1 Ancient times
3.2 Middle Ages
3.3 Early modern
3.4 Industrial age
4 External effects
5 Distinction between cities and towns
5.1 Australia
5.2 Argentina
5.3 Azerbaijan
5.4 Belarus
5.5 Bangladesh
5.6 Belgium
5.7 Brazil
5.8 Bulgaria
5.9 Canada
5.10 China (People’s Republic of China)
5.11 Chile
5.12 Denmark
5.13 Egypt
5.14 France
5.15 Finland
5.16 Germany
5.17 Greece
5.18 Iceland
5.19 India
5.20 Indonesia
5.21 Iran
5.22 Iraq
5.23 Ireland
5.24 Israel
5.25 Italy
5.26 Kazakhstan
5.27 Japan
5.28 Malaysia
5.29 Mexico
5.30 Netherlands
5.31 Nigeria
5.32 New Zealand
5.33 Norway
5.34 Pakistan
5.35 Philippines
5.36 Poland
5.37 Portugal
5.38 Romania
5.39 Russia
5.40 South Africa
5.41 South Korea
5.42 South Sudan
5.43 Sweden
5.44 Taiwan (Republic of China)
5.45 Turkey
5.46 Ukraine
5.47 United Kingdom
5.48 United States
5.49 Venezuela
6 Global cities
7 Inner city
8 21st century
9 See also
10 Notes
11 References
12 Further reading
13 External links

Origins There is insufficient evidence to assert what conditions gave rise to the first cities. Some theorists, however, have speculated on what they consider suitable pre-conditions, and basic mechanisms that might have been important driving forces.

Theories Agricultural primacyThe conventional view holds that cities first formed after the Neolithic revolution. The Neolithic revolution brought agriculture, which made denser human populations possible, thereby supporting city development. The advent of farming encouraged hunter-gatherers to abandon nomadic lifestyles and to settle near others who lived by agricultural production. The increased population-density encouraged by farming and the increased output of food per unit of land created conditions that seem more suitable for city-like activities. In his book, Cities and Economic Development, Paul Bairoch takes up this position in his argument that agricultural activity appears necessary before true cities can form.

According to Vere Gordon Childe, for a settlement to qualify as a city, it must have enough surplus of raw materials to support trade and a relatively large population.[4] Bairoch points out that, due to sparse population densities that would have persisted in pre-Neolithic, hunter-gatherer societies, the amount of land that would be required to produce enough food for subsistence and trade for a large population would make it impossible to control the flow of trade. To illustrate this point, Bairoch offers an example: "Western Europe during the pre-Neolithic, [where] the density must have been less than 0.1 person per square kilometer". Using this population density as a base for calculation, and allotting 10% of food towards surplus for trade and assuming that city dwellers do no farming, he calculates that "in order to maintain a city with a population of 1,000, and without taking the cost of transportation into account, an area of 100,000 square kilometers would have been required. When the cost of transportation is taken into account, the figure rises to 200,000 square kilometers…". Bairoch noted that this is roughly the size of Great Britain.

Urban primacyTheorist Jane Jacobs claims that city-formation preceded the birth of agriculture though offers no support for this theory. Jacobs does not lend her theory to any reasonably strict definition of a city, but her account suggestively or vaguely contrasts what could be thought of as primitive city-like activity to the activity occurring in neighboring hunter-gatherer settlements. To argue this view, she suggests a fictitious scenario where a valued natural resource leads to primitive economic activity – she takes obsidian as an example. The stock of obsidian is controlled and traded with neighboring hunting groups. Hunters who do not control the stock travel great distances to barter what they have, valuing obsidian because it "makes the sharpest tools to be had".[6] This activity brings more people to the center as jobs are created and goods are being traded. Among the goods traded are seeds of all different sorts, stored in unprecedented combinations. In various ways, some accidental, the seeds are sown, and the variation in yields are observed more readily than they would be in the wild. The seeds that yield the most grain are noticed and trading them begins to occur within the city. Owing to this local dealing, the city dwellers find that their grain yields are the best, and for the first time make deliberate and conscious selection. The choices made now become purposeful, and they are made among various strains of already cultivated crosses, and their crosses, mutants and hybrids.

Causes of establishmentTheorists have suggested many possible reasons for why people would have originally decided to come together to form dense populations. In his book City Economics, Brendan O’Flaherty asserts "Cities could persist—as they have for thousands of years—only if their advantages offset the disadvantages" (O’Flaherty 2005, p. 12). O’Flaherty illustrates two similar attracting advantages known as increasing returns to scale and economies of scale, which are concepts normally associated with firms. Their applications are seen in more basic economic systems as well. Increasing returns to scale occurs when "doubling all inputs more than doubles the output [and] an activity has economies of scale if doubling output less than doubles cost" (O’Flaherty 2005, pp. 572–573). To offer an example of these concepts, O’Flaherty makes use of "one of the oldest reasons why cities were built: military protection" (O’Flaherty 2005, p. 13). In this example, the inputs are anything that would be used for protection (e.g.: a wall) and the output is the area protected and everything of value contained in it. O’Flaherty then asks that we suppose that the area to be protected is square and each hectare inside it has the same value of protection. The advantage is expressed as: (O’Flaherty 2005, p. 13)

(1) , where O is the output (area protected) and s stands for the length of a side. This equation shows that output is proportional to the square of the length of a side.
The inputs depend on the length of the perimeter:

(2) , where I stands for the quantity of inputs. This equation shows that the perimeter is proportional to the length of a side.
So there are increasing returns to scale:

(3) . This equation (solving for in (1) and substituting in (2)) shows that with twice the inputs, you produce quadruple the output.
Also, economies of scale:

(4) . This equation (solving for in equation (3)) shows that the same output requires less input.
"Cities, then, economize on protection, and so protection against marauding barbarian armies is one reason why people have come together to live in cities…" (O’Flaherty 2005, p. 13).

Similarly, "Are Cities Dying?", a paper by Harvard economist Edward L. Glaeser, delves into similar reasons for city formation: reduced transport costs for goods, people, and ideas. Discussing the benefits of proximity, Glaeser claims that if you double a city size, workers have a ten-percent increase in earnings. Glaeser furthers his argument by stating that bigger cities do not pay more for equal productivity than in a smaller city, so it is reasonable to assume that workers become more productive if they move to a city twice the size as they initially worked in. However, the workers do not benefit much from the ten-percent wage increase, because it is recycled back into the higher cost of living in a bigger city. They do gain other benefits from living in cities, though.

A map dating 1669 showing the location of Multan, Pakistan.[edit] Geography
Map of Haarlem, the Netherlands, of around 1550. The city is completely surrounded by a city wall and defensive canal. The square shape was inspired by Jerusalem.City planning has seen many different schemes for how a city should look. The most commonly seen pattern is the grid, used for thousands of years in China, independently invented by Alexander the Great’s city-planner Dinocrates of Rhodes and favoured by the Romans, while almost a rule in parts of pre-Columbian America. Derry begun in 1613, was the first planned city in Ireland, with the walls being completed five years later. The central diamond within a walled city with four gates was thought to be a good design for defence. The grid pattern was widely copied in the colonies of British North America.

The Ancient Greeks often gave their colonies around the Mediterranean a grid plan. One of the best examples is the city of Priene. This city had different specialized districts, much as is seen in modern city planning today. Fifteen centuries earlier, the Indus Valley Civilization was using grids in such cities as Mohenjo-Daro. In medieval times there was evidence of a preference for linear planning. Good examples are the cities established by various rulers in the south of France and city expansions in old Dutch and Flemish cities.

Grid plans were popular among planners in the 19th century, particularly after the redesign of Paris. They cut through the meandering, organic streets that followed old paths. The United States imposed grid plans in new territories and towns, as the American West was rapidly established, in places such as Salt Lake City and San Francisco.

Other forms may include a radial structure, in which main roads converge on a central point. This was often a historic form, the effect of successive growth over long time with concentric traces of town walls and citadels. In more recent history, such forms were supplemented by ring-roads that take traffic around the outskirts of a town. Many Dutch cities are structured this way: a central square surrounded by concentric canals. Every city expansion would imply a new circle (canals together with town walls). In cities such as Amsterdam, Haarlem, and also Moscow, this pattern is still clearly visible.

History Further information: Historical cities and List of largest cities throughout history

The Round city of Baghdad, the capital of Iraq
Extent and major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization of ancient IndiaTowns and cities have a long history, although opinions vary on whether any particular ancient settlement can be considered to be a city. A city formed as central places of trade for the benefit of the members living in close proximity to others facilitates interaction of all kinds. These interactions generate both positive and negative externalities between others’ actions. Benefits include reduced transport costs, exchange of ideas, sharing of natural resources, large local markets, and later in their development, amenities such as running water and sewage disposal. Possible costs would include higher rate of crime, higher mortality rates, higher cost of living, worse pollution, traffic and high commuting times. Cities will grow when the benefits of proximity between people and firms are higher than the cost.

The first true towns are sometimes considered to be large settlements where the inhabitants were no longer simply farmers of the surrounding area, but began to take on specialized occupations, and where trade, food storage and power was centralized. In 1950 Gordon Childe attempted to define a historic city with 10 general metrics.[7] These are:

1.Size and density of the population should be above normal.
2.Differentiation of the population. Not all residents grow their own food, leading to specialists.
3.Payment of taxes to a deity or king.
4.Monumental public buildings.
5.Those not producing their own food are supported by the king.
6.Systems of recording and practical science.
7.A system of writing.
8.Development of symbolic art.
9.Trade and import of raw materials.
10.Specialist craftsmen from outside the kin-group.
This categorisation is descriptive, and it is used as a general touchstone when considering ancient cities, although not all have each of its characteristics.

One characteristic that can be used to distinguish a small city from a large town is organized government. A town accomplishes common goals through informal agreements between neighbors or the leadership of a chief. A city has professional administrators, regulations, and some form of taxation (food and other necessities or means to trade for them) to feed the government workers. The governments may be based on heredity, religion, military power, work projects (such as canal building), food distribution, land ownership, agriculture, commerce, manufacturing, finance, or a combination of those. Societies that live in cities are often called civilizations.

Mohenjo-daro, a World Heritage site that was part of the Indus Valley Civilization.[edit] Ancient timesFurther information: Cities of the Ancient Near East, Polis, and City-state

The ancient Ur of Sumer, in present day Tell el-Mukayyar in Iraq is one of the world’s earliest сities.
View of the Agora of Athens. The temple of Hephaestus is to the left and the Stoa of Attalos to the right.
Scale model of ancient Rome, 3rd century AD
A model of native American pyramids in the Zócalo in the center of Mexico City
Daily life of people from the Song period at the capital, Bianjing, today’s Kaifeng.
Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe from the 9th through the 12th century.Early cities developed in a number of regions of the ancient world. Mesopotamia can claim the earliest cities, particularly Eridu, Uruk, and Ur.[citation needed] After Mesopotamia, this culture arose in Syria and Anatolia, as shown by the city of Çatalhöyük (7500-5700BC). It is the largest Neolithic site found to date.[citation needed] Although it has sometimes been claimed[citation needed] that ancient Egypt lacked urbanism, several types of urban settlements were found in ancient times.

The Indus Valley Civilization and ancient China are two other areas with major indigenous urban traditions. Among the early Old World cities, Mohenjo-daro of the Indus Valley Civilization in present-day Pakistan, existing from about 2600 BC, was one of the largest, with a population of 50,000 or more.[8]

In ancient Greece, beginning in the early 1st millennium BC, there emerged independent city-states that evolved for the first time the notion of citizenship, becoming in the process the archetype of the free city, the polis.[9] The Agora, meaning "gathering place" or "assembly", was the center of athletic, artistic, spiritual and political life of the polis. These Greek city-states reached great levels of prosperity that resulted in an unprecedented cultural boom, that of classical Greece, expressed in architecture, drama, science, mathematics and philosophy, and nurtured in Athens under a democratic government. The Greek Hippodamus of Miletus (c. 407 BC) has been dubbed the "Father of City Planning" for his design of Miletus; the Hippodamian, or grid plan, was the basis for subsequent Greek and Roman cities. In the 4th century BC, Alexander the Great commissioned Dinocrates of Rhodes to lay out his new city of Alexandria, the grandest example of idealized urban planning of the ancient Mediterranean world, where the city’s regularity was facilitated by its level site near a mouth of the Nile.

This roster of early urban traditions is notable for its diversity. Excavations at early urban sites show that some cities were sparsely populated political capitals, others were trade centers, and still other cities had a primarily religious focus. Some cities had large dense populations, whereas others carried out urban activities in the realms of politics or religion without having large associated populations. Theories that attempt to explain ancient urbanism by a single factor, such as economic benefit, fail to capture the range of variation documented by archaeologists.

The growth of the population of ancient civilizations, the formation of ancient empires concentrating political power, and the growth in commerce and manufacturing led to ever greater capital cities and centres of commerce and industry, with Alexandria, Antioch and Seleucia of the Hellenistic civilization, Pataliputra (now Patna) in India, Chang’an (now Xi’an) in China, Carthage, ancient Rome, its eastern successor Constantinople (later Istanbul).

Keith Hopkins estimates that ancient Rome had a population of about a million people by the end of the 1st century BC,[13] after growing continually during the 3rd, 2nd, and 1st centuries BC, making it the largest city in the world at the time. Alexandria’s population was also close to Rome’s population at around the same time, the historian Rostovtzeff estimates a total population close to a million based on a census dated from 32 AD that counted 180,000 adult male citizens in Alexandria.

Cities of Late Antiquity underwent transformations as the urban power base shrank and was transferred to the local bishop (see Late Roman Empire). Cities essentially disappeared, earliest in Roman Britain and Germania and latest in the Eastern Roman Empire and Visigothic Spain.[citation needed]

In the ancient Americas, early urban traditions developed in the Andes and Mesoamerica. In the Andes, the first urban centers developed in the Norte Chico civilization (also Caral or Caral-Supe civilization), Chavin and Moche cultures, followed by major cities in the Huari, Chimu and Inca cultures. The Norte Chico civilization included as many as 30 major population centers in what is now the Norte Chico region of north-central coastal Peru. It is the oldest known civilization in the Americas, flourishing between the 30th century BC and the 18th century BC. Mesoamerica saw the rise of early urbanism in several cultural regions, including the Preclassic Maya, the Zapotec of Oaxaca, and Teotihuacan in central Mexico. Later cultures such as the Aztec drew on these earlier urban traditions.

In the first millennium AD, an urban tradition developed in the Khmer region of Cambodia, where Angkor grew into one of the largest cities (in area) of the world. The closest rival to Angkor, the Mayan city of Tikal in Guatemala, was between 100 and 150 square kilometres (39 and 58 sq mi) in total size. Although its population remains a topic of research and debate, newly identified agricultural systems in the Angkor area may have supported up to one million people.

Agriculture was practiced in sub-Saharan Africa since the third millennium BC. Because of this, cities were able to develop as centers of non-agricultural activity. Exactly when this first happened is still a topic of archeological and historical investigation. Western scholarship has tended to focus on cities in Europe and Mesopotamia, but emerging archeological evidence indicates that urbanization occurred south of the Sahara well before the influence of Arab urban culture. The oldest sites documented thus far are from around 500 AD including Awdaghust, Kumbi-Saleh the ancient capital of Ghana, and Maranda a center located on a trade rout between Egypt and Gao.

Middle Ages
This woodcut shows Nuremberg as a prototype of a flourishing and independent city in the 15th centuryWhile David Kessler and Peter Temin consider ancient Rome to be the largest city before 19th century London and the first to have exceeded a population of over 1 million, George Modelski considers medieval Baghdad, with an estimated population of 1.2 million at its peak, to be the largest city before 19th century London and the first with a population of over one million. Others estimate that Baghdad’s population may have been as large as 2 million in the 9th century.

From the 9th through the end of the 12th century, the city of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire, was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe, with a population approaching 1 million.

During the European Middle Ages, a town was as much a political entity as a collection of houses. City residence brought freedom from customary rural obligations to lord and community: "Stadtluft macht frei" ("City air makes you free") was a saying in Germany. In Continental Europe cities with a legislature of their own were not unheard of, the laws for towns as a rule other than for the countryside, the lord of a town often being another than for surrounding land. In the Holy Roman Empire some cities had no other lord than the emperor. In Italy medieval communes had quite a statelike power. In exceptional cases like Venice, Genoa or Lübeck, cities themselves became powerful states, sometimes taking surrounding areas under their control or establishing extensive maritime empires. Similar phenomena existed elsewhere, as in the case of Sakai, which enjoyed a considerable autonomy in late medieval Japan.

Early modern
Danzig in the 17th centuryWhile the city-states, or poleis, of the Mediterranean and Baltic Sea languished from the 16th century, Europe’s larger capitals benefited from the growth of commerce following the emergence of an Atlantic trade. By the early 19th century, London had become the largest city in the world with a population of over a million, while Paris rivaled the well-developed regionally traditional capital cities of Baghdad, Beijing, Istanbul and Kyoto. During the Spanish colonization of the Americas the old Roman city concept was extensively used. Cities were founded in the middle of the newly conquered territories, and were bound to several laws about administration, finances and urbanism.

Most towns remained far smaller places, so that in 1500 only some two dozen places in the world contained more than 100,000 inhabitants: as late as 1700 there were fewer than forty, a figure which would rise thereafter to 300 in 1900. A small city of the early modern period might contain as few as 10,000 inhabitants, a town far fewer still.[citation needed]

Industrial age
Glasgow slum in 1871The growth of modern industry from the late 18th century onward led to massive urbanization and the rise of new great cities, first in Europe and then in other regions, as new opportunities brought huge numbers of migrants from rural communities into urban areas. In the United States from 1860 to 1910, the invention of railroads reduced transportation costs, and large manufacturing centers began to emerge, thus allowing migration from rural to city areas. However, cities during those periods of time were deadly places to live in, due to health problems resulting from contaminated water and air, and communicable diseases. In the Great Depression of the 1930s cities were hard hit by unemployment, especially those with a base in heavy industry. In the U.S. urbanization rate increased forty to eighty percent during 1900-1990. Today the world’s population is slightly over half urban, with millions still streaming annually into the growing cities of Asia, Africa and Latin America.

External effects This section may contain original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding references. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed. (September 2007)

Modern cities are known for creating their own microclimates. This is due to the large clustering of heat absorbent surfaces that heat up in sunlight and that channel rainwater into underground ducts.

Waste and sewage are two major problems for cities, as is air pollution coming from various forms of combustion, including fireplaces, wood or coal-burning stoves, other heating systems, and internal combustion engines. The impact of cities on places elsewhere, be it hinterlands or places far away, is considered in the notion of city footprinting (ecological footprint). Other negative external effects include health consequences such as communicable diseases, crime, and high traffic and commuting times. Cities cause more interaction with more people than rural areas, thus a higher probability to contracting contagious diseases. However, many inventions such as inoculations, vaccines, and water filtration systems have also lowered health concerns. Crime is also a concern in the cities. Studies have shown that crime rates in cities are higher and the chance of punishment after getting caught is lower. In cases such as burglary, the higher concentration of people in cities create more items of higher value worth the risk of crime. The high concentration of people also makes using auto mobiles inconvenient and pedestrian traffic is more prominent in metropolitan areas than a rural or suburban one.

Cities also generate positive external effects. The close physical proximity facilitates knowledge spillovers, helping people and firms exchange information and generate new ideas. A thicker labor market allows for better skill matching between firms and individuals. Another positive external effect of cities comes from the diverse social opportunities created when people of different backgrounds are brought together. Larger cities typically offer a wider variety of social interests and activities, letting people of all backgrounds find something they can be involved in.

Cities may, however, also have a positive influence on the environment. UN Habitat stated in its reports that city living can be the best solution for dealing with the rising population numbers (and thus still be a good approach on dealing with overpopulation) This is because cities concentrate human activity into one place, making the environmental damage on other places smaller.letting the cities have a positive influence; however, can only be achieved if urban planning is improved[32] and if the city services are properly maintained.

Distinction between cities and townsThere are probably as many different ways of conceiving what a city is as there are cities. A simple definition therefore has its attractions. The simplest is that a city is a human settlement in which strangers are likely to meet.

Richard Sennett, The Fall of Public Man, 1977, p. 39.The difference between towns and cities is differently understood in different parts of the world. Indeed, some languages other than English use a single word for both concepts. Iberian languages typically use a three-way designation (Catalan: “poble”, “vila”, “ciutat”; Galician: “aldea”, “vila”, “cidade”; Portuguese: “aldeia”, “vila”, “cidade”; Spanish: “pueblo”, “villa”, “ciudad”—respectively “village”, “town”, “city”); Italian: “villaggio”, "paese" “città”—respectively “village”, "village/town", “city/town”; , but other Romance languages don’t (French: “village”, “ville”).

Even within the English-speaking world there is no one standard definition of a city: the term may be used either for a town possessing city status; for an urban locality exceeding an arbitrary population size; for a town dominating other towns with particular regional economic or administrative significance. In England, city is reserved for very large settlements and smaller historic settlements with a Cathedral (e.g. Lichfield), while smaller settlements without a Cathedral are called towns, and smaller still are villages and hamlets.In the US city is used for much smaller settlements.

Although city can refer to an agglomeration including suburban and satellite areas, the term is not usually applied to a conurbation (cluster) of distinct urban places, nor for a wider metropolitan area including more than one city, each acting as a focus for parts of the area. And the word "town" (also "downtown") may mean the center of the city.

Australia
Canberra – the new capital of Australia that was planned by Marion Mahony Griffin and Walter Burley GriffinAustralia’s most populous urban areas are Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide.

The official term "city" is given to any Australian statistical division with a minimum of 10,000-30,000 people (varying by state); which is defined either as a contiguous urban area or a local government area (LGA).

For instance, within the wider urban area known as Perth, Australia’s fourth most populous urban area, the City of Perth is a relatively small LGA geographically speaking, which also includes the Perth CBD. Informally, in Australian English the word city is used by Australians to describe the most prominent Central Activities District in their proximity. Some local areas containing such activities districts have ambiguous titles that actually use the word city either as or in their title, for instance for a long time the central locality of Brisbane and Canberra are officially simply "City".[35] Due to Australia’s high urbanisation, this often refers to the state’s capital city. For example, residents of Mandurah saying "going to the city" is more likely to mean the Perth CBD but almost never in the context of the City of Perth. Conversely, residents of Townsville would likely be referring to the Townsville CBD than City of Townsville or Brisbane.

Local government in Australia can apply for City Status. Prior to the Federation of Australia, local councils from the Australian colonies applied directly to the Monarchy of the United Kingdom and were proclaimed a city, a title of some prestige, was assessed on factors such as area, population and rateable revenue. Since the start of the 20th century, local government acts in each state specify the criteria and thresholds and applications are made to the Governors of the Australian states. Population thresholds currently exist under Local government acts in most states including New South Wales (1919 – 25,000); South Australia (22,000); Western Australia (30,000)[38] and Tasmania (10,000). In Victoria under the Local Government Act 1989 where until recently city status was based on rateable revenue, there is no current minimum threshold, however applications must be assessed to be "predominantly urban in character" rather than on population. Today successful application may result in additional state or federal attention for additional funds for infrastructure. However for various reasons, some councils neither seek or receive city status: for instance, Shire of Melton – in Melbourne’s west – with a population of over 80,000 (2012) decided after several years of community consultation to defer applying for city status until it reaches 150,000.[40]

Some former satellite cities have merged into larger cities (for instance, Ipswich, Queensland and Dandenong, Victoria), informally they are sometimes still called cities, although according to the Australian Bureau of Statistics they are officially only part of a larger metropolitan area or conurbation and as such are sometimes called Activity Centres by planners.


where professional models meet
Image by Smelly Feet Free Photos Art & Fun
A city is a relatively large and permanent settlement. Although there is no agreement on how a city is distinguished from a town within general English language meanings, many cities have a particular administrative, legal, or historical status based on local law.

For example, in the American state of Massachusetts an article of incorporation approved by the local state legislature distinguishes a city government from a town. In the United Kingdom and parts of the Commonwealth of Nations, a city is usually a settlement with a royal charter. Historically, in Europe, a city was understood to be an urban settlement with a cathedral. This distinction also applies in England (but not to the entire United Kingdom), where the presence of a cathedral church distinguishes a ‘city’ from a ‘town’ (which has a parish church).

Cities generally have complex systems for sanitation, utilities, land usage, housing, and transportation. The concentration of development greatly facilitates interaction between people and businesses, benefiting both parties in the process. A big city or metropolis usually has associated suburbs and exurbs. Such cities are usually associated with metropolitan areas and urban areas, creating numerous business commuters traveling to urban centers for employment. Once a city expands far enough to reach another city, this region can be deemed a conurbation or megalopolis.

Contents
1 Origins
1.1 Theories
1.1.1 Agricultural primacy
1.1.2 Urban primacy
1.2 Causes of establishment
2 Geography
3 History
3.1 Ancient times
3.2 Middle Ages
3.3 Early modern
3.4 Industrial age
4 External effects
5 Distinction between cities and towns
5.1 Australia
5.2 Argentina
5.3 Azerbaijan
5.4 Belarus
5.5 Bangladesh
5.6 Belgium
5.7 Brazil
5.8 Bulgaria
5.9 Canada
5.10 China (People’s Republic of China)
5.11 Chile
5.12 Denmark
5.13 Egypt
5.14 France
5.15 Finland
5.16 Germany
5.17 Greece
5.18 Iceland
5.19 India
5.20 Indonesia
5.21 Iran
5.22 Iraq
5.23 Ireland
5.24 Israel
5.25 Italy
5.26 Kazakhstan
5.27 Japan
5.28 Malaysia
5.29 Mexico
5.30 Netherlands
5.31 Nigeria
5.32 New Zealand
5.33 Norway
5.34 Pakistan
5.35 Philippines
5.36 Poland
5.37 Portugal
5.38 Romania
5.39 Russia
5.40 South Africa
5.41 South Korea
5.42 South Sudan
5.43 Sweden
5.44 Taiwan (Republic of China)
5.45 Turkey
5.46 Ukraine
5.47 United Kingdom
5.48 United States
5.49 Venezuela
6 Global cities
7 Inner city
8 21st century
9 See also
10 Notes
11 References
12 Further reading
13 External links

Origins There is insufficient evidence to assert what conditions gave rise to the first cities. Some theorists, however, have speculated on what they consider suitable pre-conditions, and basic mechanisms that might have been important driving forces.

Theories Agricultural primacyThe conventional view holds that cities first formed after the Neolithic revolution. The Neolithic revolution brought agriculture, which made denser human populations possible, thereby supporting city development. The advent of farming encouraged hunter-gatherers to abandon nomadic lifestyles and to settle near others who lived by agricultural production. The increased population-density encouraged by farming and the increased output of food per unit of land created conditions that seem more suitable for city-like activities. In his book, Cities and Economic Development, Paul Bairoch takes up this position in his argument that agricultural activity appears necessary before true cities can form.

According to Vere Gordon Childe, for a settlement to qualify as a city, it must have enough surplus of raw materials to support trade and a relatively large population.[4] Bairoch points out that, due to sparse population densities that would have persisted in pre-Neolithic, hunter-gatherer societies, the amount of land that would be required to produce enough food for subsistence and trade for a large population would make it impossible to control the flow of trade. To illustrate this point, Bairoch offers an example: "Western Europe during the pre-Neolithic, [where] the density must have been less than 0.1 person per square kilometer". Using this population density as a base for calculation, and allotting 10% of food towards surplus for trade and assuming that city dwellers do no farming, he calculates that "in order to maintain a city with a population of 1,000, and without taking the cost of transportation into account, an area of 100,000 square kilometers would have been required. When the cost of transportation is taken into account, the figure rises to 200,000 square kilometers…". Bairoch noted that this is roughly the size of Great Britain.

Urban primacyTheorist Jane Jacobs claims that city-formation preceded the birth of agriculture though offers no support for this theory. Jacobs does not lend her theory to any reasonably strict definition of a city, but her account suggestively or vaguely contrasts what could be thought of as primitive city-like activity to the activity occurring in neighboring hunter-gatherer settlements. To argue this view, she suggests a fictitious scenario where a valued natural resource leads to primitive economic activity – she takes obsidian as an example. The stock of obsidian is controlled and traded with neighboring hunting groups. Hunters who do not control the stock travel great distances to barter what they have, valuing obsidian because it "makes the sharpest tools to be had".[6] This activity brings more people to the center as jobs are created and goods are being traded. Among the goods traded are seeds of all different sorts, stored in unprecedented combinations. In various ways, some accidental, the seeds are sown, and the variation in yields are observed more readily than they would be in the wild. The seeds that yield the most grain are noticed and trading them begins to occur within the city. Owing to this local dealing, the city dwellers find that their grain yields are the best, and for the first time make deliberate and conscious selection. The choices made now become purposeful, and they are made among various strains of already cultivated crosses, and their crosses, mutants and hybrids.

Causes of establishmentTheorists have suggested many possible reasons for why people would have originally decided to come together to form dense populations. In his book City Economics, Brendan O’Flaherty asserts "Cities could persist—as they have for thousands of years—only if their advantages offset the disadvantages" (O’Flaherty 2005, p. 12). O’Flaherty illustrates two similar attracting advantages known as increasing returns to scale and economies of scale, which are concepts normally associated with firms. Their applications are seen in more basic economic systems as well. Increasing returns to scale occurs when "doubling all inputs more than doubles the output [and] an activity has economies of scale if doubling output less than doubles cost" (O’Flaherty 2005, pp. 572–573). To offer an example of these concepts, O’Flaherty makes use of "one of the oldest reasons why cities were built: military protection" (O’Flaherty 2005, p. 13). In this example, the inputs are anything that would be used for protection (e.g.: a wall) and the output is the area protected and everything of value contained in it. O’Flaherty then asks that we suppose that the area to be protected is square and each hectare inside it has the same value of protection. The advantage is expressed as: (O’Flaherty 2005, p. 13)

(1) , where O is the output (area protected) and s stands for the length of a side. This equation shows that output is proportional to the square of the length of a side.
The inputs depend on the length of the perimeter:

(2) , where I stands for the quantity of inputs. This equation shows that the perimeter is proportional to the length of a side.
So there are increasing returns to scale:

(3) . This equation (solving for in (1) and substituting in (2)) shows that with twice the inputs, you produce quadruple the output.
Also, economies of scale:

(4) . This equation (solving for in equation (3)) shows that the same output requires less input.
"Cities, then, economize on protection, and so protection against marauding barbarian armies is one reason why people have come together to live in cities…" (O’Flaherty 2005, p. 13).

Similarly, "Are Cities Dying?", a paper by Harvard economist Edward L. Glaeser, delves into similar reasons for city formation: reduced transport costs for goods, people, and ideas. Discussing the benefits of proximity, Glaeser claims that if you double a city size, workers have a ten-percent increase in earnings. Glaeser furthers his argument by stating that bigger cities do not pay more for equal productivity than in a smaller city, so it is reasonable to assume that workers become more productive if they move to a city twice the size as they initially worked in. However, the workers do not benefit much from the ten-percent wage increase, because it is recycled back into the higher cost of living in a bigger city. They do gain other benefits from living in cities, though.

A map dating 1669 showing the location of Multan, Pakistan.[edit] Geography
Map of Haarlem, the Netherlands, of around 1550. The city is completely surrounded by a city wall and defensive canal. The square shape was inspired by Jerusalem.City planning has seen many different schemes for how a city should look. The most commonly seen pattern is the grid, used for thousands of years in China, independently invented by Alexander the Great’s city-planner Dinocrates of Rhodes and favoured by the Romans, while almost a rule in parts of pre-Columbian America. Derry begun in 1613, was the first planned city in Ireland, with the walls being completed five years later. The central diamond within a walled city with four gates was thought to be a good design for defence. The grid pattern was widely copied in the colonies of British North America.

The Ancient Greeks often gave their colonies around the Mediterranean a grid plan. One of the best examples is the city of Priene. This city had different specialized districts, much as is seen in modern city planning today. Fifteen centuries earlier, the Indus Valley Civilization was using grids in such cities as Mohenjo-Daro. In medieval times there was evidence of a preference for linear planning. Good examples are the cities established by various rulers in the south of France and city expansions in old Dutch and Flemish cities.

Grid plans were popular among planners in the 19th century, particularly after the redesign of Paris. They cut through the meandering, organic streets that followed old paths. The United States imposed grid plans in new territories and towns, as the American West was rapidly established, in places such as Salt Lake City and San Francisco.

Other forms may include a radial structure, in which main roads converge on a central point. This was often a historic form, the effect of successive growth over long time with concentric traces of town walls and citadels. In more recent history, such forms were supplemented by ring-roads that take traffic around the outskirts of a town. Many Dutch cities are structured this way: a central square surrounded by concentric canals. Every city expansion would imply a new circle (canals together with town walls). In cities such as Amsterdam, Haarlem, and also Moscow, this pattern is still clearly visible.

History Further information: Historical cities and List of largest cities throughout history

The Round city of Baghdad, the capital of Iraq
Extent and major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization of ancient IndiaTowns and cities have a long history, although opinions vary on whether any particular ancient settlement can be considered to be a city. A city formed as central places of trade for the benefit of the members living in close proximity to others facilitates interaction of all kinds. These interactions generate both positive and negative externalities between others’ actions. Benefits include reduced transport costs, exchange of ideas, sharing of natural resources, large local markets, and later in their development, amenities such as running water and sewage disposal. Possible costs would include higher rate of crime, higher mortality rates, higher cost of living, worse pollution, traffic and high commuting times. Cities will grow when the benefits of proximity between people and firms are higher than the cost.

The first true towns are sometimes considered to be large settlements where the inhabitants were no longer simply farmers of the surrounding area, but began to take on specialized occupations, and where trade, food storage and power was centralized. In 1950 Gordon Childe attempted to define a historic city with 10 general metrics.[7] These are:

1.Size and density of the population should be above normal.
2.Differentiation of the population. Not all residents grow their own food, leading to specialists.
3.Payment of taxes to a deity or king.
4.Monumental public buildings.
5.Those not producing their own food are supported by the king.
6.Systems of recording and practical science.
7.A system of writing.
8.Development of symbolic art.
9.Trade and import of raw materials.
10.Specialist craftsmen from outside the kin-group.
This categorisation is descriptive, and it is used as a general touchstone when considering ancient cities, although not all have each of its characteristics.

One characteristic that can be used to distinguish a small city from a large town is organized government. A town accomplishes common goals through informal agreements between neighbors or the leadership of a chief. A city has professional administrators, regulations, and some form of taxation (food and other necessities or means to trade for them) to feed the government workers. The governments may be based on heredity, religion, military power, work projects (such as canal building), food distribution, land ownership, agriculture, commerce, manufacturing, finance, or a combination of those. Societies that live in cities are often called civilizations.

Mohenjo-daro, a World Heritage site that was part of the Indus Valley Civilization.[edit] Ancient timesFurther information: Cities of the Ancient Near East, Polis, and City-state

The ancient Ur of Sumer, in present day Tell el-Mukayyar in Iraq is one of the world’s earliest ?ities.
View of the Agora of Athens. The temple of Hephaestus is to the left and the Stoa of Attalos to the right.
Scale model of ancient Rome, 3rd century AD
A model of native American pyramids in the Zócalo in the center of Mexico City
Daily life of people from the Song period at the capital, Bianjing, today’s Kaifeng.
Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe from the 9th through the 12th century.Early cities developed in a number of regions of the ancient world. Mesopotamia can claim the earliest cities, particularly Eridu, Uruk, and Ur.[citation needed] After Mesopotamia, this culture arose in Syria and Anatolia, as shown by the city of Çatalhöyük (7500-5700BC). It is the largest Neolithic site found to date.[citation needed] Although it has sometimes been claimed[citation needed] that ancient Egypt lacked urbanism, several types of urban settlements were found in ancient times.

The Indus Valley Civilization and ancient China are two other areas with major indigenous urban traditions. Among the early Old World cities, Mohenjo-daro of the Indus Valley Civilization in present-day Pakistan, existing from about 2600 BC, was one of the largest, with a population of 50,000 or more.[8]

In ancient Greece, beginning in the early 1st millennium BC, there emerged independent city-states that evolved for the first time the notion of citizenship, becoming in the process the archetype of the free city, the polis.[9] The Agora, meaning "gathering place" or "assembly", was the center of athletic, artistic, spiritual and political life of the polis. These Greek city-states reached great levels of prosperity that resulted in an unprecedented cultural boom, that of classical Greece, expressed in architecture, drama, science, mathematics and philosophy, and nurtured in Athens under a democratic government. The Greek Hippodamus of Miletus (c. 407 BC) has been dubbed the "Father of City Planning" for his design of Miletus; the Hippodamian, or grid plan, was the basis for subsequent Greek and Roman cities. In the 4th century BC, Alexander the Great commissioned Dinocrates of Rhodes to lay out his new city of Alexandria, the grandest example of idealized urban planning of the ancient Mediterranean world, where the city’s regularity was facilitated by its level site near a mouth of the Nile.

This roster of early urban traditions is notable for its diversity. Excavations at early urban sites show that some cities were sparsely populated political capitals, others were trade centers, and still other cities had a primarily religious focus. Some cities had large dense populations, whereas others carried out urban activities in the realms of politics or religion without having large associated populations. Theories that attempt to explain ancient urbanism by a single factor, such as economic benefit, fail to capture the range of variation documented by archaeologists.

The growth of the population of ancient civilizations, the formation of ancient empires concentrating political power, and the growth in commerce and manufacturing led to ever greater capital cities and centres of commerce and industry, with Alexandria, Antioch and Seleucia of the Hellenistic civilization, Pataliputra (now Patna) in India, Chang’an (now Xi’an) in China, Carthage, ancient Rome, its eastern successor Constantinople (later Istanbul).

Keith Hopkins estimates that ancient Rome had a population of about a million people by the end of the 1st century BC,[13] after growing continually during the 3rd, 2nd, and 1st centuries BC, making it the largest city in the world at the time. Alexandria’s population was also close to Rome’s population at around the same time, the historian Rostovtzeff estimates a total population close to a million based on a census dated from 32 AD that counted 180,000 adult male citizens in Alexandria.

Cities of Late Antiquity underwent transformations as the urban power base shrank and was transferred to the local bishop (see Late Roman Empire). Cities essentially disappeared, earliest in Roman Britain and Germania and latest in the Eastern Roman Empire and Visigothic Spain.[citation needed]

In the ancient Americas, early urban traditions developed in the Andes and Mesoamerica. In the Andes, the first urban centers developed in the Norte Chico civilization (also Caral or Caral-Supe civilization), Chavin and Moche cultures, followed by major cities in the Huari, Chimu and Inca cultures. The Norte Chico civilization included as many as 30 major population centers in what is now the Norte Chico region of north-central coastal Peru. It is the oldest known civilization in the Americas, flourishing between the 30th century BC and the 18th century BC. Mesoamerica saw the rise of early urbanism in several cultural regions, including the Preclassic Maya, the Zapotec of Oaxaca, and Teotihuacan in central Mexico. Later cultures such as the Aztec drew on these earlier urban traditions.

In the first millennium AD, an urban tradition developed in the Khmer region of Cambodia, where Angkor grew into one of the largest cities (in area) of the world. The closest rival to Angkor, the Mayan city of Tikal in Guatemala, was between 100 and 150 square kilometres (39 and 58 sq mi) in total size. Although its population remains a topic of research and debate, newly identified agricultural systems in the Angkor area may have supported up to one million people.

Agriculture was practiced in sub-Saharan Africa since the third millennium BC. Because of this, cities were able to develop as centers of non-agricultural activity. Exactly when this first happened is still a topic of archeological and historical investigation. Western scholarship has tended to focus on cities in Europe and Mesopotamia, but emerging archeological evidence indicates that urbanization occurred south of the Sahara well before the influence of Arab urban culture. The oldest sites documented thus far are from around 500 AD including Awdaghust, Kumbi-Saleh the ancient capital of Ghana, and Maranda a center located on a trade rout between Egypt and Gao.

Middle Ages
This woodcut shows Nuremberg as a prototype of a flourishing and independent city in the 15th centuryWhile David Kessler and Peter Temin consider ancient Rome to be the largest city before 19th century London and the first to have exceeded a population of over 1 million, George Modelski considers medieval Baghdad, with an estimated population of 1.2 million at its peak, to be the largest city before 19th century London and the first with a population of over one million. Others estimate that Baghdad’s population may have been as large as 2 million in the 9th century.

From the 9th through the end of the 12th century, the city of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire, was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe, with a population approaching 1 million.

During the European Middle Ages, a town was as much a political entity as a collection of houses. City residence brought freedom from customary rural obligations to lord and community: "Stadtluft macht frei" ("City air makes you free") was a saying in Germany. In Continental Europe cities with a legislature of their own were not unheard of, the laws for towns as a rule other than for the countryside, the lord of a town often being another than for surrounding land. In the Holy Roman Empire some cities had no other lord than the emperor. In Italy medieval communes had quite a statelike power. In exceptional cases like Venice, Genoa or Lübeck, cities themselves became powerful states, sometimes taking surrounding areas under their control or establishing extensive maritime empires. Similar phenomena existed elsewhere, as in the case of Sakai, which enjoyed a considerable autonomy in late medieval Japan.

Early modern
Danzig in the 17th centuryWhile the city-states, or poleis, of the Mediterranean and Baltic Sea languished from the 16th century, Europe’s larger capitals benefited from the growth of commerce following the emergence of an Atlantic trade. By the early 19th century, London had become the largest city in the world with a population of over a million, while Paris rivaled the well-developed regionally traditional capital cities of Baghdad, Beijing, Istanbul and Kyoto. During the Spanish colonization of the Americas the old Roman city concept was extensively used. Cities were founded in the middle of the newly conquered territories, and were bound to several laws about administration, finances and urbanism.

Most towns remained far smaller places, so that in 1500 only some two dozen places in the world contained more than 100,000 inhabitants: as late as 1700 there were fewer than forty, a figure which would rise thereafter to 300 in 1900. A small city of the early modern period might contain as few as 10,000 inhabitants, a town far fewer still.[citation needed]

Industrial age
Glasgow slum in 1871The growth of modern industry from the late 18th century onward led to massive urbanization and the rise of new great cities, first in Europe and then in other regions, as new opportunities brought huge numbers of migrants from rural communities into urban areas. In the United States from 1860 to 1910, the invention of railroads reduced transportation costs, and large manufacturing centers began to emerge, thus allowing migration from rural to city areas. However, cities during those periods of time were deadly places to live in, due to health problems resulting from contaminated water and air, and communicable diseases. In the Great Depression of the 1930s cities were hard hit by unemployment, especially those with a base in heavy industry. In the U.S. urbanization rate increased forty to eighty percent during 1900-1990. Today the world’s population is slightly over half urban, with millions still streaming annually into the growing cities of Asia, Africa and Latin America.

External effects This section may contain original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding references. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed. (September 2007)

Modern cities are known for creating their own microclimates. This is due to the large clustering of heat absorbent surfaces that heat up in sunlight and that channel rainwater into underground ducts.

Waste and sewage are two major problems for cities, as is air pollution coming from various forms of combustion, including fireplaces, wood or coal-burning stoves, other heating systems, and internal combustion engines. The impact of cities on places elsewhere, be it hinterlands or places far away, is considered in the notion of city footprinting (ecological footprint). Other negative external effects include health consequences such as communicable diseases, crime, and high traffic and commuting times. Cities cause more interaction with more people than rural areas, thus a higher probability to contracting contagious diseases. However, many inventions such as inoculations, vaccines, and water filtration systems have also lowered health concerns. Crime is also a concern in the cities. Studies have shown that crime rates in cities are higher and the chance of punishment after getting caught is lower. In cases such as burglary, the higher concentration of people in cities create more items of higher value worth the risk of crime. The high concentration of people also makes using auto mobiles inconvenient and pedestrian traffic is more prominent in metropolitan areas than a rural or suburban one.

Cities also generate positive external effects. The close physical proximity facilitates knowledge spillovers, helping people and firms exchange information and generate new ideas. A thicker labor market allows for better skill matching between firms and individuals. Another positive external effect of cities comes from the diverse social opportunities created when people of different backgrounds are brought together. Larger cities typically offer a wider variety of social interests and activities, letting people of all backgrounds find something they can be involved in.

Cities may, however, also have a positive influence on the environment. UN Habitat stated in its reports that city living can be the best solution for dealing with the rising population numbers (and thus still be a good approach on dealing with overpopulation) This is because cities concentrate human activity into one place, making the environmental damage on other places smaller.letting the cities have a positive influence; however, can only be achieved if urban planning is improved[32] and if the city services are properly maintained.

Distinction between cities and townsThere are probably as many different ways of conceiving what a city is as there are cities. A simple definition therefore has its attractions. The simplest is that a city is a human settlement in which strangers are likely to meet.

Richard Sennett, The Fall of Public Man, 1977, p. 39.The difference between towns and cities is differently understood in different parts of the world. Indeed, some languages other than English use a single word for both concepts. Iberian languages typically use a three-way designation (Catalan: “poble”, “vila”, “ciutat”; Galician: “aldea”, “vila”, “cidade”; Portuguese: “aldeia”, “vila”, “cidade”; Spanish: “pueblo”, “villa”, “ciudad”—respectively “village”, “town”, “city”); Italian: “villaggio”, "paese" “città”—respectively “village”, "village/town", “city/town”; , but other Romance languages don’t (French: “village”, “ville”).

Even within the English-speaking world there is no one standard definition of a city: the term may be used either for a town possessing city status; for an urban locality exceeding an arbitrary population size; for a town dominating other towns with particular regional economic or administrative significance. In England, city is reserved for very large settlements and smaller historic settlements with a Cathedral (e.g. Lichfield), while smaller settlements without a Cathedral are called towns, and smaller still are villages and hamlets.In the US city is used for much smaller settlements.

Although city can refer to an agglomeration including suburban and satellite areas, the term is not usually applied to a conurbation (cluster) of distinct urban places, nor for a wider metropolitan area including more than one city, each acting as a focus for parts of the area. And the word "town" (also "downtown") may mean the center of the city.

Australia
Canberra – the new capital of Australia that was planned by Marion Mahony Griffin and Walter Burley GriffinAustralia’s most populous urban areas are Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide.

The official term "city" is given to any Australian statistical division with a minimum of 10,000-30,000 people (varying by state); which is defined either as a contiguous urban area or a local government area (LGA).

For instance, within the wider urban area known as Perth, Australia’s fourth most populous urban area, the City of Perth is a relatively small LGA geographically speaking, which also includes the Perth CBD. Informally, in Australian English the word city is used by Australians to describe the most prominent Central Activities District in their proximity. Some local areas containing such activities districts have ambiguous titles that actually use the word city either as or in their title, for instance for a long time the central locality of Brisbane and Canberra are officially simply "City".[35] Due to Australia’s high urbanisation, this often refers to the state’s capital city. For example, residents of Mandurah saying "going to the city" is more likely to mean the Perth CBD but almost never in the context of the City of Perth. Conversely, residents of Townsville would likely be referring to the Townsville CBD than City of Townsville or Brisbane.

Local government in Australia can apply for City Status. Prior to the Federation of Australia, local councils from the Australian colonies applied directly to the Monarchy of the United Kingdom and were proclaimed a city, a title of some prestige, was assessed on factors such as area, population and rateable revenue. Since the start of the 20th century, local government acts in each state specify the criteria and thresholds and applications are made to the Governors of the Australian states. Population thresholds currently exist under Local government acts in most states including New South Wales (1919 – 25,000); South Australia (22,000); Western Australia (30,000)[38] and Tasmania (10,000). In Victoria under the Local Government Act 1989 where until recently city status was based on rateable revenue, there is no current minimum threshold, however applications must be assessed to be "predominantly urban in character" rather than on population. Today successful application may result in additional state or federal attention for additional funds for infrastructure. However for various reasons, some councils neither seek or receive city status: for instance, Shire of Melton – in Melbourne’s west – with a population of over 80,000 (2012) decided after several years of community consultation to defer applying for city status until it reaches 150,000.

Some former satellite cities have merged into larger cities (for instance, Ipswich, Queensland and Dandenong, Victoria), informally they are sometimes still called cities, although according to the Australian Bureau of Statistics they are officially only part of a larger metropolitan area or conurbation and as such are sometimes called Activity Centres by planners.


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A city is a relatively large and permanent settlement. Although there is no agreement on how a city is distinguished from a town within general English language meanings, many cities have a particular administrative, legal, or historical status based on local law.

For example, in the American state of Massachusetts an article of incorporation approved by the local state legislature distinguishes a city government from a town. In the United Kingdom and parts of the Commonwealth of Nations, a city is usually a settlement with a royal charter. Historically, in Europe, a city was understood to be an urban settlement with a cathedral. This distinction also applies in England (but not to the entire United Kingdom), where the presence of a cathedral church distinguishes a ‘city’ from a ‘town’ (which has a parish church).

Cities generally have complex systems for sanitation, utilities, land usage, housing, and transportation. The concentration of development greatly facilitates interaction between people and businesses, benefiting both parties in the process. A big city or metropolis usually has associated suburbs and exurbs. Such cities are usually associated with metropolitan areas and urban areas, creating numerous business commuters traveling to urban centers for employment. Once a city expands far enough to reach another city, this region can be deemed a conurbation or megalopolis.

Contents
1 Origins
1.1 Theories
1.1.1 Agricultural primacy
1.1.2 Urban primacy
1.2 Causes of establishment
2 Geography
3 History
3.1 Ancient times
3.2 Middle Ages
3.3 Early modern
3.4 Industrial age
4 External effects
5 Distinction between cities and towns
5.1 Australia
5.2 Argentina
5.3 Azerbaijan
5.4 Belarus
5.5 Bangladesh
5.6 Belgium
5.7 Brazil
5.8 Bulgaria
5.9 Canada
5.10 China (People’s Republic of China)
5.11 Chile
5.12 Denmark
5.13 Egypt
5.14 France
5.15 Finland
5.16 Germany
5.17 Greece
5.18 Iceland
5.19 India
5.20 Indonesia
5.21 Iran
5.22 Iraq
5.23 Ireland
5.24 Israel
5.25 Italy
5.26 Kazakhstan
5.27 Japan
5.28 Malaysia
5.29 Mexico
5.30 Netherlands
5.31 Nigeria
5.32 New Zealand
5.33 Norway
5.34 Pakistan
5.35 Philippines
5.36 Poland
5.37 Portugal
5.38 Romania
5.39 Russia
5.40 South Africa
5.41 South Korea
5.42 South Sudan
5.43 Sweden
5.44 Taiwan (Republic of China)
5.45 Turkey
5.46 Ukraine
5.47 United Kingdom
5.48 United States
5.49 Venezuela
6 Global cities
7 Inner city
8 21st century
9 See also
10 Notes
11 References
12 Further reading
13 External links

Origins There is insufficient evidence to assert what conditions gave rise to the first cities. Some theorists, however, have speculated on what they consider suitable pre-conditions, and basic mechanisms that might have been important driving forces.

Theories Agricultural primacyThe conventional view holds that cities first formed after the Neolithic revolution. The Neolithic revolution brought agriculture, which made denser human populations possible, thereby supporting city development. The advent of farming encouraged hunter-gatherers to abandon nomadic lifestyles and to settle near others who lived by agricultural production. The increased population-density encouraged by farming and the increased output of food per unit of land created conditions that seem more suitable for city-like activities. In his book, Cities and Economic Development, Paul Bairoch takes up this position in his argument that agricultural activity appears necessary before true cities can form.

According to Vere Gordon Childe, for a settlement to qualify as a city, it must have enough surplus of raw materials to support trade and a relatively large population.[4] Bairoch points out that, due to sparse population densities that would have persisted in pre-Neolithic, hunter-gatherer societies, the amount of land that would be required to produce enough food for subsistence and trade for a large population would make it impossible to control the flow of trade. To illustrate this point, Bairoch offers an example: "Western Europe during the pre-Neolithic, [where] the density must have been less than 0.1 person per square kilometer". Using this population density as a base for calculation, and allotting 10% of food towards surplus for trade and assuming that city dwellers do no farming, he calculates that "in order to maintain a city with a population of 1,000, and without taking the cost of transportation into account, an area of 100,000 square kilometers would have been required. When the cost of transportation is taken into account, the figure rises to 200,000 square kilometers…". Bairoch noted that this is roughly the size of Great Britain.

Urban primacyTheorist Jane Jacobs claims that city-formation preceded the birth of agriculture though offers no support for this theory. Jacobs does not lend her theory to any reasonably strict definition of a city, but her account suggestively or vaguely contrasts what could be thought of as primitive city-like activity to the activity occurring in neighboring hunter-gatherer settlements. To argue this view, she suggests a fictitious scenario where a valued natural resource leads to primitive economic activity – she takes obsidian as an example. The stock of obsidian is controlled and traded with neighboring hunting groups. Hunters who do not control the stock travel great distances to barter what they have, valuing obsidian because it "makes the sharpest tools to be had".[6] This activity brings more people to the center as jobs are created and goods are being traded. Among the goods traded are seeds of all different sorts, stored in unprecedented combinations. In various ways, some accidental, the seeds are sown, and the variation in yields are observed more readily than they would be in the wild. The seeds that yield the most grain are noticed and trading them begins to occur within the city. Owing to this local dealing, the city dwellers find that their grain yields are the best, and for the first time make deliberate and conscious selection. The choices made now become purposeful, and they are made among various strains of already cultivated crosses, and their crosses, mutants and hybrids.

Causes of establishmentTheorists have suggested many possible reasons for why people would have originally decided to come together to form dense populations. In his book City Economics, Brendan O’Flaherty asserts "Cities could persist—as they have for thousands of years—only if their advantages offset the disadvantages" (O’Flaherty 2005, p. 12). O’Flaherty illustrates two similar attracting advantages known as increasing returns to scale and economies of scale, which are concepts normally associated with firms. Their applications are seen in more basic economic systems as well. Increasing returns to scale occurs when "doubling all inputs more than doubles the output [and] an activity has economies of scale if doubling output less than doubles cost" (O’Flaherty 2005, pp. 572–573). To offer an example of these concepts, O’Flaherty makes use of "one of the oldest reasons why cities were built: military protection" (O’Flaherty 2005, p. 13). In this example, the inputs are anything that would be used for protection (e.g.: a wall) and the output is the area protected and everything of value contained in it. O’Flaherty then asks that we suppose that the area to be protected is square and each hectare inside it has the same value of protection. The advantage is expressed as: (O’Flaherty 2005, p. 13)

(1) , where O is the output (area protected) and s stands for the length of a side. This equation shows that output is proportional to the square of the length of a side.
The inputs depend on the length of the perimeter:

(2) , where I stands for the quantity of inputs. This equation shows that the perimeter is proportional to the length of a side.
So there are increasing returns to scale:

(3) . This equation (solving for in (1) and substituting in (2)) shows that with twice the inputs, you produce quadruple the output.
Also, economies of scale:

(4) . This equation (solving for in equation (3)) shows that the same output requires less input.
"Cities, then, economize on protection, and so protection against marauding barbarian armies is one reason why people have come together to live in cities…" (O’Flaherty 2005, p. 13).

Similarly, "Are Cities Dying?", a paper by Harvard economist Edward L. Glaeser, delves into similar reasons for city formation: reduced transport costs for goods, people, and ideas. Discussing the benefits of proximity, Glaeser claims that if you double a city size, workers have a ten-percent increase in earnings. Glaeser furthers his argument by stating that bigger cities do not pay more for equal productivity than in a smaller city, so it is reasonable to assume that workers become more productive if they move to a city twice the size as they initially worked in. However, the workers do not benefit much from the ten-percent wage increase, because it is recycled back into the higher cost of living in a bigger city. They do gain other benefits from living in cities, though.

A map dating 1669 showing the location of Multan, Pakistan.[edit] Geography
Map of Haarlem, the Netherlands, of around 1550. The city is completely surrounded by a city wall and defensive canal. The square shape was inspired by Jerusalem.City planning has seen many different schemes for how a city should look. The most commonly seen pattern is the grid, used for thousands of years in China, independently invented by Alexander the Great’s city-planner Dinocrates of Rhodes and favoured by the Romans, while almost a rule in parts of pre-Columbian America. Derry begun in 1613, was the first planned city in Ireland, with the walls being completed five years later. The central diamond within a walled city with four gates was thought to be a good design for defence. The grid pattern was widely copied in the colonies of British North America.

The Ancient Greeks often gave their colonies around the Mediterranean a grid plan. One of the best examples is the city of Priene. This city had different specialized districts, much as is seen in modern city planning today. Fifteen centuries earlier, the Indus Valley Civilization was using grids in such cities as Mohenjo-Daro. In medieval times there was evidence of a preference for linear planning. Good examples are the cities established by various rulers in the south of France and city expansions in old Dutch and Flemish cities.

Grid plans were popular among planners in the 19th century, particularly after the redesign of Paris. They cut through the meandering, organic streets that followed old paths. The United States imposed grid plans in new territories and towns, as the American West was rapidly established, in places such as Salt Lake City and San Francisco.

Other forms may include a radial structure, in which main roads converge on a central point. This was often a historic form, the effect of successive growth over long time with concentric traces of town walls and citadels. In more recent history, such forms were supplemented by ring-roads that take traffic around the outskirts of a town. Many Dutch cities are structured this way: a central square surrounded by concentric canals. Every city expansion would imply a new circle (canals together with town walls). In cities such as Amsterdam, Haarlem, and also Moscow, this pattern is still clearly visible.

History Further information: Historical cities and List of largest cities throughout history

The Round city of Baghdad, the capital of Iraq
Extent and major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization of ancient IndiaTowns and cities have a long history, although opinions vary on whether any particular ancient settlement can be considered to be a city. A city formed as central places of trade for the benefit of the members living in close proximity to others facilitates interaction of all kinds. These interactions generate both positive and negative externalities between others’ actions. Benefits include reduced transport costs, exchange of ideas, sharing of natural resources, large local markets, and later in their development, amenities such as running water and sewage disposal. Possible costs would include higher rate of crime, higher mortality rates, higher cost of living, worse pollution, traffic and high commuting times. Cities will grow when the benefits of proximity between people and firms are higher than the cost.

The first true towns are sometimes considered to be large settlements where the inhabitants were no longer simply farmers of the surrounding area, but began to take on specialized occupations, and where trade, food storage and power was centralized. In 1950 Gordon Childe attempted to define a historic city with 10 general metrics.[7] These are:

1.Size and density of the population should be above normal.
2.Differentiation of the population. Not all residents grow their own food, leading to specialists.
3.Payment of taxes to a deity or king.
4.Monumental public buildings.
5.Those not producing their own food are supported by the king.
6.Systems of recording and practical science.
7.A system of writing.
8.Development of symbolic art.
9.Trade and import of raw materials.
10.Specialist craftsmen from outside the kin-group.
This categorisation is descriptive, and it is used as a general touchstone when considering ancient cities, although not all have each of its characteristics.

One characteristic that can be used to distinguish a small city from a large town is organized government. A town accomplishes common goals through informal agreements between neighbors or the leadership of a chief. A city has professional administrators, regulations, and some form of taxation (food and other necessities or means to trade for them) to feed the government workers. The governments may be based on heredity, religion, military power, work projects (such as canal building), food distribution, land ownership, agriculture, commerce, manufacturing, finance, or a combination of those. Societies that live in cities are often called civilizations.

Mohenjo-daro, a World Heritage site that was part of the Indus Valley Civilization.[edit] Ancient timesFurther information: Cities of the Ancient Near East, Polis, and City-state

The ancient Ur of Sumer, in present day Tell el-Mukayyar in Iraq is one of the world’s earliest ?ities.
View of the Agora of Athens. The temple of Hephaestus is to the left and the Stoa of Attalos to the right.
Scale model of ancient Rome, 3rd century AD
A model of native American pyramids in the Zócalo in the center of Mexico City
Daily life of people from the Song period at the capital, Bianjing, today’s Kaifeng.
Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe from the 9th through the 12th century.Early cities developed in a number of regions of the ancient world. Mesopotamia can claim the earliest cities, particularly Eridu, Uruk, and Ur.[citation needed] After Mesopotamia, this culture arose in Syria and Anatolia, as shown by the city of Çatalhöyük (7500-5700BC). It is the largest Neolithic site found to date.[citation needed] Although it has sometimes been claimed[citation needed] that ancient Egypt lacked urbanism, several types of urban settlements were found in ancient times.

The Indus Valley Civilization and ancient China are two other areas with major indigenous urban traditions. Among the early Old World cities, Mohenjo-daro of the Indus Valley Civilization in present-day Pakistan, existing from about 2600 BC, was one of the largest, with a population of 50,000 or more.[8]

In ancient Greece, beginning in the early 1st millennium BC, there emerged independent city-states that evolved for the first time the notion of citizenship, becoming in the process the archetype of the free city, the polis.[9] The Agora, meaning "gathering place" or "assembly", was the center of athletic, artistic, spiritual and political life of the polis. These Greek city-states reached great levels of prosperity that resulted in an unprecedented cultural boom, that of classical Greece, expressed in architecture, drama, science, mathematics and philosophy, and nurtured in Athens under a democratic government. The Greek Hippodamus of Miletus (c. 407 BC) has been dubbed the "Father of City Planning" for his design of Miletus; the Hippodamian, or grid plan, was the basis for subsequent Greek and Roman cities. In the 4th century BC, Alexander the Great commissioned Dinocrates of Rhodes to lay out his new city of Alexandria, the grandest example of idealized urban planning of the ancient Mediterranean world, where the city’s regularity was facilitated by its level site near a mouth of the Nile.

This roster of early urban traditions is notable for its diversity. Excavations at early urban sites show that some cities were sparsely populated political capitals, others were trade centers, and still other cities had a primarily religious focus. Some cities had large dense populations, whereas others carried out urban activities in the realms of politics or religion without having large associated populations. Theories that attempt to explain ancient urbanism by a single factor, such as economic benefit, fail to capture the range of variation documented by archaeologists.

The growth of the population of ancient civilizations, the formation of ancient empires concentrating political power, and the growth in commerce and manufacturing led to ever greater capital cities and centres of commerce and industry, with Alexandria, Antioch and Seleucia of the Hellenistic civilization, Pataliputra (now Patna) in India, Chang’an (now Xi’an) in China, Carthage, ancient Rome, its eastern successor Constantinople (later Istanbul).

Keith Hopkins estimates that ancient Rome had a population of about a million people by the end of the 1st century BC,[13] after growing continually during the 3rd, 2nd, and 1st centuries BC, making it the largest city in the world at the time. Alexandria’s population was also close to Rome’s population at around the same time, the historian Rostovtzeff estimates a total population close to a million based on a census dated from 32 AD that counted 180,000 adult male citizens in Alexandria.

Cities of Late Antiquity underwent transformations as the urban power base shrank and was transferred to the local bishop (see Late Roman Empire). Cities essentially disappeared, earliest in Roman Britain and Germania and latest in the Eastern Roman Empire and Visigothic Spain.[citation needed]

In the ancient Americas, early urban traditions developed in the Andes and Mesoamerica. In the Andes, the first urban centers developed in the Norte Chico civilization (also Caral or Caral-Supe civilization), Chavin and Moche cultures, followed by major cities in the Huari, Chimu and Inca cultures. The Norte Chico civilization included as many as 30 major population centers in what is now the Norte Chico region of north-central coastal Peru. It is the oldest known civilization in the Americas, flourishing between the 30th century BC and the 18th century BC. Mesoamerica saw the rise of early urbanism in several cultural regions, including the Preclassic Maya, the Zapotec of Oaxaca, and Teotihuacan in central Mexico. Later cultures such as the Aztec drew on these earlier urban traditions.

In the first millennium AD, an urban tradition developed in the Khmer region of Cambodia, where Angkor grew into one of the largest cities (in area) of the world. The closest rival to Angkor, the Mayan city of Tikal in Guatemala, was between 100 and 150 square kilometres (39 and 58 sq mi) in total size. Although its population remains a topic of research and debate, newly identified agricultural systems in the Angkor area may have supported up to one million people.

Agriculture was practiced in sub-Saharan Africa since the third millennium BC. Because of this, cities were able to develop as centers of non-agricultural activity. Exactly when this first happened is still a topic of archeological and historical investigation. Western scholarship has tended to focus on cities in Europe and Mesopotamia, but emerging archeological evidence indicates that urbanization occurred south of the Sahara well before the influence of Arab urban culture. The oldest sites documented thus far are from around 500 AD including Awdaghust, Kumbi-Saleh the ancient capital of Ghana, and Maranda a center located on a trade rout between Egypt and Gao.

Middle Ages
This woodcut shows Nuremberg as a prototype of a flourishing and independent city in the 15th centuryWhile David Kessler and Peter Temin consider ancient Rome to be the largest city before 19th century London and the first to have exceeded a population of over 1 million, George Modelski considers medieval Baghdad, with an estimated population of 1.2 million at its peak, to be the largest city before 19th century London and the first with a population of over one million. Others estimate that Baghdad’s population may have been as large as 2 million in the 9th century.

From the 9th through the end of the 12th century, the city of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire, was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe, with a population approaching 1 million.

During the European Middle Ages, a town was as much a political entity as a collection of houses. City residence brought freedom from customary rural obligations to lord and community: "Stadtluft macht frei" ("City air makes you free") was a saying in Germany. In Continental Europe cities with a legislature of their own were not unheard of, the laws for towns as a rule other than for the countryside, the lord of a town often being another than for surrounding land. In the Holy Roman Empire some cities had no other lord than the emperor. In Italy medieval communes had quite a statelike power. In exceptional cases like Venice, Genoa or Lübeck, cities themselves became powerful states, sometimes taking surrounding areas under their control or establishing extensive maritime empires. Similar phenomena existed elsewhere, as in the case of Sakai, which enjoyed a considerable autonomy in late medieval Japan.

Early modern
Danzig in the 17th centuryWhile the city-states, or poleis, of the Mediterranean and Baltic Sea languished from the 16th century, Europe’s larger capitals benefited from the growth of commerce following the emergence of an Atlantic trade. By the early 19th century, London had become the largest city in the world with a population of over a million, while Paris rivaled the well-developed regionally traditional capital cities of Baghdad, Beijing, Istanbul and Kyoto. During the Spanish colonization of the Americas the old Roman city concept was extensively used. Cities were founded in the middle of the newly conquered territories, and were bound to several laws about administration, finances and urbanism.

Most towns remained far smaller places, so that in 1500 only some two dozen places in the world contained more than 100,000 inhabitants: as late as 1700 there were fewer than forty, a figure which would rise thereafter to 300 in 1900. A small city of the early modern period might contain as few as 10,000 inhabitants, a town far fewer still.[citation needed]

Industrial age
Glasgow slum in 1871The growth of modern industry from the late 18th century onward led to massive urbanization and the rise of new great cities, first in Europe and then in other regions, as new opportunities brought huge numbers of migrants from rural communities into urban areas. In the United States from 1860 to 1910, the invention of railroads reduced transportation costs, and large manufacturing centers began to emerge, thus allowing migration from rural to city areas. However, cities during those periods of time were deadly places to live in, due to health problems resulting from contaminated water and air, and communicable diseases. In the Great Depression of the 1930s cities were hard hit by unemployment, especially those with a base in heavy industry. In the U.S. urbanization rate increased forty to eighty percent during 1900-1990. Today the world’s population is slightly over half urban, with millions still streaming annually into the growing cities of Asia, Africa and Latin America.

External effects This section may contain original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding references. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed. (September 2007)

Modern cities are known for creating their own microclimates. This is due to the large clustering of heat absorbent surfaces that heat up in sunlight and that channel rainwater into underground ducts.

Waste and sewage are two major problems for cities, as is air pollution coming from various forms of combustion, including fireplaces, wood or coal-burning stoves, other heating systems, and internal combustion engines. The impact of cities on places elsewhere, be it hinterlands or places far away, is considered in the notion of city footprinting (ecological footprint). Other negative external effects include health consequences such as communicable diseases, crime, and high traffic and commuting times. Cities cause more interaction with more people than rural areas, thus a higher probability to contracting contagious diseases. However, many inventions such as inoculations, vaccines, and water filtration systems have also lowered health concerns. Crime is also a concern in the cities. Studies have shown that crime rates in cities are higher and the chance of punishment after getting caught is lower. In cases such as burglary, the higher concentration of people in cities create more items of higher value worth the risk of crime. The high concentration of people also makes using auto mobiles inconvenient and pedestrian traffic is more prominent in metropolitan areas than a rural or suburban one.

Cities also generate positive external effects. The close physical proximity facilitates knowledge spillovers, helping people and firms exchange information and generate new ideas. A thicker labor market allows for better skill matching between firms and individuals. Another positive external effect of cities comes from the diverse social opportunities created when people of different backgrounds are brought together. Larger cities typically offer a wider variety of social interests and activities, letting people of all backgrounds find something they can be involved in.

Cities may, however, also have a positive influence on the environment. UN Habitat stated in its reports that city living can be the best solution for dealing with the rising population numbers (and thus still be a good approach on dealing with overpopulation) This is because cities concentrate human activity into one place, making the environmental damage on other places smaller.letting the cities have a positive influence; however, can only be achieved if urban planning is improved[32] and if the city services are properly maintained.

Distinction between cities and townsThere are probably as many different ways of conceiving what a city is as there are cities. A simple definition therefore has its attractions. The simplest is that a city is a human settlement in which strangers are likely to meet.

Richard Sennett, The Fall of Public Man, 1977, p. 39.The difference between towns and cities is differently understood in different parts of the world. Indeed, some languages other than English use a single word for both concepts. Iberian languages typically use a three-way designation (Catalan: “poble”, “vila”, “ciutat”; Galician: “aldea”, “vila”, “cidade”; Portuguese: “aldeia”, “vila”, “cidade”; Spanish: “pueblo”, “villa”, “ciudad”—respectively “village”, “town”, “city”); Italian: “villaggio”, "paese" “città”—respectively “village”, "village/town", “city/town”; , but other Romance languages don’t (French: “village”, “ville”).

Even within the English-speaking world there is no one standard definition of a city: the term may be used either for a town possessing city status; for an urban locality exceeding an arbitrary population size; for a town dominating other towns with particular regional economic or administrative significance. In England, city is reserved for very large settlements and smaller historic settlements with a Cathedral (e.g. Lichfield), while smaller settlements without a Cathedral are called towns, and smaller still are villages and hamlets.In the US city is used for much smaller settlements.

Although city can refer to an agglomeration including suburban and satellite areas, the term is not usually applied to a conurbation (cluster) of distinct urban places, nor for a wider metropolitan area including more than one city, each acting as a focus for parts of the area. And the word "town" (also "downtown") may mean the center of the city.

Australia
Canberra – the new capital of Australia that was planned by Marion Mahony Griffin and Walter Burley GriffinAustralia’s most populous urban areas are Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide.

The official term "city" is given to any Australian statistical division with a minimum of 10,000-30,000 people (varying by state); which is defined either as a contiguous urban area or a local government area (LGA).

For instance, within the wider urban area known as Perth, Australia’s fourth most populous urban area, the City of Perth is a relatively small LGA geographically speaking, which also includes the Perth CBD. Informally, in Australian English the word city is used by Australians to describe the most prominent Central Activities District in their proximity. Some local areas containing such activities districts have ambiguous titles that actually use the word city either as or in their title, for instance for a long time the central locality of Brisbane and Canberra are officially simply "City".[35] Due to Australia’s high urbanisation, this often refers to the state’s capital city. For example, residents of Mandurah saying "going to the city" is more likely to mean the Perth CBD but almost never in the context of the City of Perth. Conversely, residents of Townsville would likely be referring to the Townsville CBD than City of Townsville or Brisbane.

Local government in Australia can apply for City Status. Prior to the Federation of Australia, local councils from the Australian colonies applied directly to the Monarchy of the United Kingdom and were proclaimed a city, a title of some prestige, was assessed on factors such as area, population and rateable revenue. Since the start of the 20th century, local government acts in each state specify the criteria and thresholds and applications are made to the Governors of the Australian states. Population thresholds currently exist under Local government acts in most states including New South Wales (1919 – 25,000); South Australia (22,000); Western Australia (30,000)[38] and Tasmania (10,000). In Victoria under the Local Government Act 1989 where until recently city status was based on rateable revenue, there is no current minimum threshold, however applications must be assessed to be "predominantly urban in character" rather than on population. Today successful application may result in additional state or federal attention for additional funds for infrastructure. However for various reasons, some councils neither seek or receive city status: for instance, Shire of Melton – in Melbourne’s west – with a population of over 80,000 (2012) decided after several years of community consultation to defer applying for city status until it reaches 150,000.

Some former satellite cities have merged into larger cities (for instance, Ipswich, Queensland and Dandenong, Victoria), informally they are sometimes still called cities, although according to the Australian Bureau of Statistics they are officially only part of a larger metropolitan area or conurbation and as such are sometimes called Activity Centres by planners.

Mar 26

Nice Where Professional Models Meet photos

A limited good where pro models meet pictures I found:

… Eugene Robinson: Lessons from China — We’re stuck with every additional, like it or not. (Feb. 17, 2012) …item 2.. Eugene Robinson: Joe Paterno’s shame (4:03 PM, Jul 13, 2012 ) …
where expert models meet
Image by marsmet481
Note the term “guests,” that can be the most chilling euphemisms I’ve ever heard.

University officials didn’t even follow through found on the inadequate reaction of cutting off Sandusky’s access to Penn State facilities.

According to Freeh’s report, Sandusky “was permitted to have a key for, plus continued to exercise in” the athletic complex till November of last year. “If college leaders had not granted Sandusky full utilize of Penn State’s sports facilities plus supported his techniques to ‘work with young individuals by Penn State,’ intimate assaults of many young guys found on the Penn State campus could have been prevented.”

……..***** All pictures are copyrighted by their respective authors ……..

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If you are to thrive inside a changing globe, singing “America the Beautiful” isn’t enough.

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…..item 1)…. FLORIDA TODAY … www.floridatoday.com/article … Eugene Robinson: Lessons from China

US should begin performing like a severe nation
2:34 PM, Feb. 17, 2012

FILED UNDER
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Syndicated Columnists

www.floridatoday.com/article/20120219/OPINION04/302190002…|newswell|text|Home|s

China, for greater or worse, is a severe nation. The United States had greater commence performing like 1.

I got a glimpse of the future Wednesday inside the big ballroom of the Washington hotel where hundreds of august dignitaries —and certain journalists also —gathered at a luncheon inside honor of Vice President Xi Jinping, whom is commonly expected to become China’s top leader following a year-long transition.

Xi’s status is these which he was introduced by no lower than Henry Kissinger, that talked, not for the very first time, of the Nixon-to-China breakthrough 4 years ago. It is worthwhile to keep in mind which the nation you today think of because a trillion-dollar creditor as well as the producer of iPads was when a Maoist bastion, hermetically sealed from the capitalist affects of the Western planet.

Let me interject which this column usually include many Chinese names, that is difficult for English-speaking visitors to adhere to. Please result in the effort. Being an informed citizen of the planet is increasingly going to need certain comfort with Chinese nomenclature.

Xi’s dad —Xi Zhongxun, when 1 of Mao Zedong’s lieutenants —fell from favor plus was persecuted throughout much of which era. Xi Jinping is piece of the great generation which survived the apocalypse of the Cultural Revolution; he invested lengthy, difficult years because a teen living inside a cave inside the bad, remote Shaanxi province.

Xi fared much better than the guy considered his chief rival for energy plus influence inside China — Bo Xilai, the Communist Party chief for the Chongqing metropolitan region, that is house to almost 25 million persons. Bo’s dad, Bo Yibo, was 1 of Mao’s many reliable associates before being purged inside the Cultural Revolution. The complete family was transmitted to a prison for five years, then to a work camp for another five. Bo Xilai’s mom either committed suicide or was beaten to death.

I recount this history considering it assists me know why the males — along with a some females — today running China are the technique they are: impatient to compensate for lost time, pathologically aware of the slightest instability, tough, resourceful, adaptable, coldly unsentimental plus, because Kissinger generalized inside his introduction, convinced “that each answer is the beginning of the unique set of issues.”

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The speech Xi delivered at the luncheon was very stilted plus anodyne, because you may have expected. He’s not president yet, plus clearly he was aim about not generating headline information. China wants a “cooperative partnership” with all the United States, he mentioned, adding his meetings with President Obama plus Vice President Biden were “fruitful.”

There was an total content, nonetheless. Xi referred to the U.S.-China relationship because “an unstoppable river which keeps surging ahead.” He was pointing out the obvious: For years to come, the United States plus China is the world’s 2 largest financial powers. We’re stuck with every additional, like it or not.

China is a one-party state, however, which refuses to signify there is not a debate regarding the country’s way. Xi is considered probably to keep the country about its present path of free-market financial development. His political adversary Bo Xilai recommends a more robust protection web to care for the millions that are being left from the Chinese financial magic.

There are moreover internal disagreements regarding how aggressive China ought to be inside asserting its military influence throughout the area, incredibly inside the South China Sea. Addressing the ecological expense of the country’s fast development is an urgent task for the incoming leadership. China’s record about human rights plus political openness continues to be abysmal.

These are severe issues — nevertheless Chinese leaders at minimum are grappling with them inside a severe way. However here inside the United States?

“We’re having the many frivolous of conversations — inside an election year!” This assessment came from Jon Huntsman, the past ambassador to China that newly ended his call for the GOP presidential nomination, plus that attended the lunch for Xi.

We hear a great deal of China-bashing found on the campaign path. Yes, there’s plenty to criticize — currency manipulation, intellectual piracy, the appalling veto of the U.N. Security Council resolution phoning for the ouster of the murderous Assad regime inside Syria. What we’re not hearing is a severe debate regarding farsighted reforms which are required to keep the United States from dropping behind.

If you are to thrive inside a changing planet, singing “America the Beautiful” isn’t enough.
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…..item 2)…. Florida Today … www.floridatoday.com/article

Eugene Robinson: Joe Paterno’s shame
Report reveals coach’s disregard for victims
4:03 PM, Jul 13, 2012

FILED UNDER
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www.floridatoday.com/article/20120715/OPINION04/307150006…|newswell|text|Home|s

Outside the Penn State sports stadium stands a statue of famous coach Joe Paterno, his arm raised inside victory. Right upcoming into it, college officials could erect another figure inside bronze: A young boy crying out inside anguish plus being coldly ignored.

Penn State’s Board of Trustees commissioned previous FBI Director Louis Freeh to investigate how child molester Jerry Sandusky — for a long time 1 of Paterno’s many trusted plus fast assistants — might have committed his awful offences beneath the noses of college officials. The answer is easy plus shocking: Those officials merely looked the different method.

“The many saddening finding by the Special Investigative Counsel is the total plus consistent disregard by the many senior leaders at Penn State for the protection plus welfare of Sandusky’s child victims,” the report states. “Four quite effective folks at The Pennsylvania State University … failed to safeguard against a child intimate predator harming kids for over a decade.”

Those 4 effective officials include Paterno, that died earlier this year of lung cancer. Almost virtually a sainted figure inside the globe of big-time, big-money university sports, Paterno became aware of really wrong behavior by Sandusky with young guys at smallest 14 years ago, according to Freeh’s report. Paterno’s inaction was shameful.

Many damning is Freeh’s acquiring which inside 2001, following an assistant coach saw Sandusky raping a young boy inside the showers of the Penn State locker area, an intervention by Paterno was apparently instrumental inside convincing college officials to sweep the incident beneath the rug.

The different 3 males allegedly associated inside the cover-up — previous Athletic Director Tim Curley plus past Vice President Gary Schultz, both of who face perjury charges, plus past college President Graham Spanier — had decided to notify state child-welfare officials, according to Freeh, whom had access to private emails plus notes.

However before any action was taken, Curley wrote to Schultz plus Spanier which “after providing it more thought plus speaking it over with Joe,” he had decided he will be more “comfortable” meeting with Sandusky, counseling him to receive expert aid plus telling him “his guests are not permitted to utilize the facilities.”

Email Robinson at eugenerobinson@washpost.com.

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Note the term “guests,” that can be the most chilling euphemisms I’ve ever heard.

University officials didn’t even follow through found on the inadequate reaction of cutting off Sandusky’s access to Penn State facilities. According to Freeh’s report, Sandusky “was permitted to have a key for, plus continued to exercise in” the athletic complex till November of last year. “If college leaders had not granted Sandusky full utilize of Penn State’s sports facilities plus supported his techniques to ‘work with young folks from Penn State,’ intimate assaults of many young guys found on the Penn State campus could have been prevented.”

It goes without suggesting which Paterno’s legacy is forever tarnished. He was head coach at Penn State for 46 years till being fired last year following Sandusky was arrested as well as the charges against him created public. Paterno’s 409 wins are the almost all of any Division I coach. His Nittany Lions claimed 2 nationwide championships plus prepared 37 bowl appearances. He was incredibly proud of his sports program’s record because a model: Penn State avoided the recruiting scandals which included numerous alternative universities with top-ranked athletic programs, plus his sports players graduated at an admirable rate.

In a letter he wrote before his death, apparently intended because an op-ed part, Paterno argued which whatever individuals could think of his actions inside the Sandusky matter, “this might be not a sports scandal.”

However that’s what it happens to be.

Imagine which an assistant coach of, state, the chess team were caught showering with an 11-year-old boy, because Sandusky was inside 1998. Would which chess coach nevertheless be about 3 years later? If he were caught inside the act of abusing another young boy inside 2001, might the best officials of the college dither plus fret for days — without creating the slightest attempt to find plus find the victim? Would the head chess coach be capable to persuade his superiors there was clearly no have to call state welfare officials, allow alone the authorities?

The truth is the fact that Joe Paterno was more effective at Penn State than any athletic director, more effective even than the university’s president. And the standing of the sports system was more significant than the protection plus well-being of innocent young guys.

Email Robinson at eugenerobinson@washpost.com.
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Hit her with tangy Tipalet (1969) …item 2.. Creedence Clearwater Revival – 1976 .. Full Album (20 Best Hits) …item 3.. LinkedIn is all regarding creating the appropriate connection (9:43 PM, Sep 12, 2012) …
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Image by marsmet451
Develop a profile with authentic content plus employ a expert head shot. Be severe regarding that we connect with plus refer. Don’t connect with somebody hoping to create a sale instantly. We nonetheless should function about developing a relationship plus conversation with a individual really because you’d in almost any face-to-face networking.
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……..*****All pictures are copyrighted by their repsective authors ……..
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…header content for FSU News

Girls Who Code is an company which concentrates on educating young girls regarding coding, plus creating solutions for those to enter the development staff.

Females continue to persevere to create a future inside that girls are considered visionaries inside the Internet age.
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…..item 1)…. FSU News … www.fsunews.com … Women are improving their presence inside technologies

5:12 PM, Aug. 26, 2012

Written by
Carolina Gonzalez
Contributing Writer

FILED UNDER
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www.fsunews.com/article/20120827/FSVIEW03/120826015/Women…|newswell|text|frontpage|s

In the last 100 years, ladies have been capable to break away within the stereotypes of domesticity plus redefine what girls are capable of. The girls nowadays are consistently forging their own path rather of following which of males. In what selected to be predominantly a man’s globe, ladies are today reigning supreme. Despite women’s force about society, woman presence inside the globe of development is lacking. The stereotype nonetheless remains which just guys are prepared plus capable to function inside the field, lead by Bill Gates plus Steve Jobs. This idea is probably to change too, because girls are beginning to educate 1 another found on the possibilities of functioning inside cyber-space plus becoming leaders inside the industry.

The first step is to educate girls plus bring awareness regarding the endless possibilities inside the technologies industry. For decades, the idea which ladies are not interested inside mathematics as well as the sciences has stayed continual, as well as the company Girls Who Code is struggling to challenge which idea. The business is concentrating about educating females inside low-income regions plus permitting those to succeed inside an location which is within dire need of the woman presence. But, the toughest task is not creating job solutions, yet eliminating the stereotypes held by several for thus lengthy. Women now should forge ahead inside the hopes of creating a planet of development where they are taken really because both collaborators plus innovators.

The 2nd step is to have a sturdy woman presence inside main Internet businesses inside purchase to show both women’s abilities in addition to offer character models for those ambitious to function inside the industry. Recently, The Daily Beast introduced the Digital Power Index, a list of the 100 many influential folks inside the development sector. Out of those 100, just 7 were girls. Not just is it potential, and important to heighten the quantity of females that play an active part inside age of computers, because it might have durable effects about society. Despite this setback, 2 females are taking control of the Twitterverse: Katie Jacobs Stanton plus Chloe Sladden. Stanton is within charge of the company’s global expansion, plus is rated No. 56 about Forbes’ list quite effective ladies. Since graduating from Colombia, her primary focus has been development and just how it may be selected because a beneficial tool inside the globe of politics. Having been at the firm because July 2010, her job has focused about Twitter’s part inside the Arab Spring, plus providing a real outlet for flexibility of expression. The next woman energy player of Twitter is Sladden, director of media partnerships. She is usually searching for fresh methods for Twitter to collaborate with tv, celebrities or both. Originally functioning at a literary agency, she left plus entered a planet she viewed because the future: interactive tv.

Women inside the staff continue to create themselves acknowledged, because both legitimate competition for males in addition to exiting a durable imprint about society. In the globe of development, the presence of girls is severely lacking, due to long-held stereotypes regarding girls functioning inside the man dominated sector, leading to an absence of women that is an illustration for other people. Girls Who Code is an company which concentrates on educating young ladies regarding coding, plus creating chances for those to enter the development staff. Females continue to persevere to create a future inside that ladies are considered visionaries inside the Internet age.
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…..item 2)…. youtube movie … Creedence Clearwater Revival "Chronicle Vol. 1" (Full Album) (1976) (20 Best Hits) … 84:19 minutes

www.youtube.com/watch?v=nBHrx_ke1nA

Published about May 5, 2012 by MrCantblockmyvids

I couldn’t discover this about Youtube anywhere thus I decided to upload it. The 20 biggest hits from Creedence Clearwater Revival. Great ole CCR. I furthermore added 2 more tunes at the finish which I felt could have been found on the album. These are typically Born found on the Bayou plus The Midnight Special.

Chronicle, Vol. 1, sometimes known because Chronicle: The 20 Best Hits, is a compilation album by American swamp rock band Creedence Clearwater Revival, introduced inside January 1976 by Fantasy Records, it was introduced the same time because the single launch of "I Heard It Through the Grapevine" (see 1976 inside music). Compared to the 2 earlier introduced Creedence Gold compilations, Chronicle Vol. 1 qualities the group’s charted hits. It is the best-selling album inside the Creedence catalog, creating 8x Multi-Platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America. Chronicle, Vol. 1 is a singles collection with 13 A-sides plus 7 B-sides.

1. "Susie Q" (Dale Hawkins, Stan Lewis, Eleanor Broadwater) Creedence Clearwater Revival (1968) 0:00
2. "I Put a Spell about You" (Screamin’ Jay Hawkins) Creedence Clearwater Revival (1968) 8:40
3. "Proud Mary" Bayou Country (1969) 13:11
4. "Bad Moon Rising" Green River (1969) 16:20
5. "Lodi" Green River (1969) 18:40
6. "Green River" Green River (1969) 21:51
7. "Commotion" Green River (1969) 24:25
8. "Down found on the Corner" Willy as well as the Poor Boys (1969) 27:09
9. "Fortunate Son" Willy as well as the Poor Boys (1969) 29:53
10. "Travelin’ Band" Cosmo’s Factory (1970) 32:13
11. "Who’ll Stop the Rain" Cosmo’s Factory (1970) 34:22
12. "Up Around the Bend" Cosmo’s Factory (1970) 36:51
13. "Run Through the Jungle" Cosmo’s Factory (1970) 39:34
14. "Lookin’ out My Back Door" Cosmo’s Factory (1970) 42:40
15. "Long As I Can See the Light" Cosmo’s Factory (1970) 45:13
16. "I Heard It Through the Grapevine" (Norman Whitfield, Barrett Strong) Cosmo’s Factory (1970) 48:47
17. "Have We Ever Seen the Rain?" Pendulum (1970) 59:52
18. "Hey Tonight" Pendulum (1970) 1:02:33
19. "Sweet Hitch-Hiker" Mardi Gras (1972) 1:05:16
20. "Someday Never Comes" Mardi Gras (1972) 1:08:15
Bonus Tracks from MrCantblockmyvids:
21. "Born On The Bayou" 1:12:11
22. "The Midnight Special" 1:20:13

Category:
Music

License:
Standard YouTube License
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…..item 3)…. Florida Today … www.floridatoday.com

LinkedIn is all regarding creating the proper connection
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img code photograph … Beth Gitlin

cmsimg.floridatoday.com/apps/pbcsi.dll/bilde?Site=A9&…

Beth Gitlin is director of the Women’s Company Center at Florida Tech plus an adjunct professor inside the university’s School of Company. For Florida Today.

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9:43 PM, Sep 12, 2012

Written by
Beth
Gitlin

FILED UNDER
Columnists
Ask Company Expert

www.floridatoday.com/article/20120913/COLUMNISTS0706/3091…|newswell|text|Home|s

QUESTION: Why could I consider LinkedIn for my company requires?

Answer: Lately, it appears which the social media advertising attention is about Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest plus additional platforms of note. I’ve not heard a great deal of conversation regarding individuals utilizing LinkedIn because an powerful tool for their company. Yet, I have over 500 connections plus countless of my connections have over 500 connections. What do you do with all those connections?

First of all, 1 should consider it because a expert platform instead of a social platform. More importantly, it may be viewed because a internet networking website which may help save you time plus income inside generating those strategic connections which may land we the upcoming deal, assist we to obtain the number one qualified staff or aid we inside acquiring a network of help for a certain industry. Finally, LinkedIn is used because an powerful tool inside achieving the correct individuals that might enable we take a business worldwide.

Here are certain interesting details regarding LinkedIn, offered by bluerisemedia.com:

• 101 million members internationally

• 47.2 % from North America, 23 % from Europe

• 82 % of customers trust LinkedIn compared with 23 % for Facebook

• LinkedIn consumers are 59 % girl

• Used by 69 of the best 100 Fortune 500 firms

• 50 % of Fortune 100 businesses hire by LinkedIn

Secondly, 1 could consider ways to use it smartly. Develop the profile with authentic content plus employ a specialist head shot. Be severe regarding whom we connect with plus refer. Don’t connect with somebody hoping to create a sale instantly. We nevertheless should function about developing a relationship plus conversation with a individual merely because you’d in almost any face-to-face networking.

Then, identify persons inside a community plus the sphere of influence which we believe will be interesting to satisfy with. Get associated with them plus figure out methods to share certain info. Simply don’t leave it at “I’d like to incorporate we to my network.” Personalize the content plus allow them recognize why you want to connect with them. Just this last week, I’ve had 2 company colleagues tell me which they had employed LinkedIn to connect with others inside their industry plus have absolutely met with those to discuss company solutions.

Finally, LinkedIn is a best method to leverage a individual brand force plus the firm brand energy. It might enable we to open doorways to hot solutions.

Beth Gitlin is director of the Women’s Company Center at Florida Tech plus an adjunct professor inside the university’s School of Organization. Visit wbc.fit.edu or call 321-674-7007 to find out more.
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Rainy Day
where expert models meet
Image by Parker Knight
Photo of Assistant Dean of Student Life strolling with QRC Director towards SMSU from WRC following lunch meeting there. I was above third Floor SMSU Skybridge walkway to NH from SMSU following being photographed by Bike 2 PSU Challenge Poster, by official PSU Marketing Department Photographers. Parker Michael Knight experience QRC Director plus Assistant Dean of Student Life "french kissing" by my lens. Next, 2 walks quickly to SMSU stair perfectly. When I contacted the Assistant Dean with all the pic plus eye observe which she was kissing QRC director she filed "No Contact" Clause plus emailed me I took photo without permission. They were inside public access technique. My shot was broad angle of everything plus everyone plus no inside means striving to take only her photo that is impossible with 16mm-35mm broad angle lens usually 100 feet away. This really is the time, I observed which she sexually harassed me whenever I was inside her workplace. Which I didn’t understand just what it was at the time, whenever she spread her legs Wide eagle whilst sitting inside front of me whilst wearing black leather mini skirt plus she slouched for 10 minutes whilst another staff, her subordinate, Domanic Thomas, was chatting to me regarding how to take photo of individuals inside class, with created model launch, so that they don’t change their notice following PrinkMaking Exchange Book was built. If thus, I might then, destroy the book therefore, no foul performed, that the book is within Eleanor H Erskine’s hands (loaned to her from collection of Parker Michael Knight). Back to Assistant Dean of Student Life, I file 20 pages lengthy problem against her plus her staff to PSU Lawyers’ department called "Equity plus Compliance" which where we go to site plus file problem against them. I was escorted there with a Campus Police Security Sergeant McCleary inside his authorities cruiser, when I sat found on the passenger. He escorted me to Disability Resource Center to explain to the counselor there what the condition with intimate harassment I was filing. Her workplace, Dean of Student Life, emailed me suggesting which I imagined the entire thing. That’s whenever I decided to create 25 pages extended problem plus email it to President Obama and Mayor Adams plus email it to News Organizations all over the world, too. I was going to air problem about Nick Maier, Grace Morgan, plus Chris Bigg’s Regurgitate KPSU radio station too or create a big existence size poster regarding the allegation I was filing problem regarding. Then, I appealed the neighborhood lawyer’s choice to Chancellor of Oregon University System (because inside top to top guys) that I do not have idea whom which is or where their workplace is situated at. I used plus am inside campaign to run for the PSU Student Government for Student Senate. I am found on the ballot. I might fight for we! Because, "Art is for everyone!" Art is for everyone, is my slate/slogan for the campaign.

Feb 16

Nice Where Professional Models Meet photos

Some cool where professional models meet images:

Focus on Imaging
where professional models meet
Image by Barry Zee
Focus on Imaging 2009, Professional Imaging Supplies, pfd, Gary Walsh

A couple of minutes before 10.00am on the morning of Sunday, January 14th, 1990, Mary Walker was getting ready to open her first exhibition, Focus on Photography.

It had taken her 18 months of hard work to get to that point but she had had tremendous support from right across the industry. As she waited for the clock to tick towards ten o’clock she knew she had succeeded in putting together an exhibition which had so exceeded her early expectations that she had had to have a marquee erected at the back of The Pavilion at the NEC to accommodate everyone who wanted to be there.

Now the only question was “Will the show attract enough visitors – and of the right quality – to make the whole thing a complete success.”

The answer, as everyone connected with the show will tell you, was “yes” and from then onwards Focus has grown in both size and, arguably more important, reputation. However, even now, as Mary puts together the final details for the 20th Focus, now Focus on Imaging of course, she takes nothing for granted and is more than happy to confess that she will still have butterflies when she picks up the microphone to declare Focus 2009, the biggest ever, open.

So much has changed in those 20 years, including the name which Mary presciently changed in 1992. So many well known names have vanished – or at least are now shadows of their former selves while companies which once had no connection with photography – or “imaging” as we now know it – are now market leaders in that industry. Film is now a sideline product. Mobile phones now routinely feature cameras whose “megapixellage” was once thought all but unachievable. The internet has become a real rival to the High Street.

Throughout this time, Focus has provided a unique platform for innovation and product launches that new and emerging technologies have helped create but one thing hasn’t changed, the unique ambience that is Focus on Imaging. Focus is large enough to have a major impact on the imaging world, it’s Europe’s biggest annual imaging industry showcase after all, yet it retains a very personal, almost intimate, persona.

Not easy in an industry where some of the biggest companies in the world hold sway but where Focus scores – and scores heavily – over other exhibitions, is that even after 20 years, it’s still Mary Walker herself who pulls the whole thing together every year. It is still very much “her” show, just as that first one was back in 1990 but Mary has no plans to sit back on her laurels. Indeed with Focus 2010 already demanding her attention she’s already looking at ways of making that “coming-of-age” show even more of a success than its predecessors.

It hasn’t been an easy 12 months for anyone since Focus 2008 and the imaging industry has not been immune to the problems affecting the rest of the economy but one thing is clear from this year’s Focus exhibitors’ list – there’s a determination among both the giants and the giants-to-be of the industry to project a positive, “business as usual” message to the 33,000 or so visitors expected to make their way to the NEC over the four days the show is open, Sunday, February 22nd to Wednesday, 25th.

So, what can those visitors expect to see? First of all, a great many of the products which were unveiled at Photokina will be getting their UK debut, some of them indeed getting their first full debut in production rather than pre-production form.

They will be able to say “we were there” to share the excitement as a flurry of new companies set out the kind of thinking which allowed George Eastman to take the Kodak concept from his mother’s kitchen table to international status.

They will able to listen and learn as some of the best known names in the industry show how they do it, how they turn a fiver into fifty quid, how they use their computer as much as their camera to turn a perfectly acceptable photo into a top class Photo with a capital “P”.

And they will leave with their bags full of show special offers and end of range bargains, brochures about products they will want to investigate further, samples of different types of paper they can use at home, quite possibly with that special new lens they have been saving for or with the complete paperwork for the purchase of a new dry minilab or studio lighting system or wide format printer for delivery immediately after the show.

Memories are precious, says photo album specialists, Bob Books, but the rapidly increasing use of digital cameras has meant that the age-old delights of family photo albums are declining. Photographs are now stored in the memory of our computers, yet the desire for the emotive, tactile experience of photographs remains – and this is where Bob Books comes in.

From your computer simply download the Bob Books software. Use the formatting options to choose your desired layout, add your text and images to personalise your book; then just wait for delivery – it’s that simple.

The quality of our binding sets the benchmark, says Bob Books, which claims to offer the highest available production standards from its bookbindery in Switzerland where the company enjoys a reputation as one of the world leaders in bookbinding production.

The stand will also feature some brand new software but for now Bob Books will only say: “You’ll have to wait to the Focus doors open to see exactly what it does.”

Broncolor claims to have long set the benchmark by which all other lighting manufacturers are judged and says its new Scoro range sets a new level to which the competition must aspire, as it sets no less than four world bests.

With the new Swiss-built Scoro power packs, you can let your artistic imagination run free. With their uniquely convenient control systems, you can deal with even the most complex lighting setups easily every time. No other flash system gives you so much creative capability – and no other holds so many world records.

A recharging time of 0.6s at 1600 joule and 0.4s at 1200 joule, a 10 f-stop control range with stable colour temperature, adjustable colour temperature (at 200 K intervals), and three independent channels with exactly the same colour temperature – with Scoro, broncolor has set no fewer than four new world records, and remains the industry benchmark in modern flash technology. With its versatile and unparalleled capabilities for power distribution with consistent light quality, this new power pack is the ideal light source for digital photography.

Creativity Backgrounds will be offering 10 percent off all orders taken at the show. A great opportunity to stock up on your Arctic Whites and Blacks and to try one of the 50 colours. Why not go for a Carnation pink for children or wedding photography, or stimulate your imagination with a chromagreen backdrop. This show they will be highlighting the fact that they deliver direct to your studio or any location in the UK for only £5 (or £8 for next day). As a preview have a look at www.creativitybackgrounds.co.uk . This is a brand new website, which makes ordering dead easy. The company is also running a prize draw for a full-length 2.72mx11m roll per day. It’s free to enter, just put your card in the box or fill in a form on the stand for the chance to win.

Digital Photo Solutions, one of the UK’s leading suppliers of large format printers to the photographic and fine art markets and an authorised specialist dealer for over 30 digital imaging brands, will be demonstrating leading print to finish workflow solutions at Focus on Imaging 2009.

Visitors to the company’s stand will also be to test drive and compare the latest large format printers from Epson and HP, learn how to move seamlessly from image to print to finish to frame in less than 30 minutes, ensure your monitor’s colours are displayed correctly and match the output you are looking for with Datacolor’s industry-leading range of Spyder 3 monitor and printer profiling hardware calibrators.

They’ll also be able to see the latest version of the acclaimed Shiraz Focus software, explore the extensive range of DPS specialist media and see how you can increase your profits in the photographic, fine art and canvas printing markets, discover how to enhance your print service with the HotPress JetMounter and dind out how to protect your inkjet canvas prints and stretch them on to frames faster than ever before with the DPS QuickMate.

Dunns Imaging Group will be showing their new flex workflow, a complete production and web hosting solution specifically designed for shools and nursery photographers. There will also be demonstrations of their new innovative album creation software Creative Albums. Both products are set to play a major role in Dunns product offering during 2009

If you visit the Extensis stand N8, you’ll find a team of experts showcasing Portfolio Server 8.5, the latest version of their digital asset management solution. Portfolio Server 8.5 provides the core set of capabilities you need to keep your images on-the-move—for routing to other users/departments, for final delivery to clients, partners or vendors, or for secure archiving. Included with Portfolio Server 8.5, Project Sync for Adobe CS3 seamlessly integrates with Adobe CS3 to offer powerful database searching, flexible archiving and automated web delivery—all from within the Creative Suite environment.

Some photographers jump from lab to lab searching for the lowest prices, reckons Portuguese company, Floricolor, adding that others search for a lab to work with them in partnership, to ensure quality, fair pricing and short delivery times.

Floricolor claims to have been pioneers in the protection of digital albums through lamination, and has recently introduced varnish UV protection, pointing out that this is the best system of protecting photos against heat, humidity and scratches, while maintaining the unique touch of photographic paper. Floricolor combines the best in two worlds, the highest technology of digital print (Frontier, two Durst Theta 51s, Laserlab 76, Fuji and Kodak Professional0 and the hands of skilled craftsmen with many years of practice.

“The number of new costumers we have attracted indicates that we are on the right track,” said a company spokesman. “We are looking at the future with optimism because innovation is an inseparable element of our work philosophy.”

Fujifilm UK has expanded its range of professional inkjet media, with additions that include a popular new satin finish canvas type and an outstanding genuine fibre base gloss baryte. Satin Canvas 350gsm is one of two new canvases introduced by Fujifilm UK. Satin has become the canvas finish most favoured by US consumers, a trend the UK is expected to follow. The other new Fujifilm canvas is Fine Art Natural Canvas 290gsm, a single-weave natural matt.

But, says Fuji, the big news in Fine Art must be that two completely new baryte type papers have joined the Fujifilm range of large format print media. The extensively tested new papers are available in gloss and matt, the base paper is genuine fibre based baryte media.

The new Fujifilm baryte papers have a premium look and feel, wide dynamic range, luminous neutral whites, and hold deep, rich blacks, even have the scent of traditional baryte papers, and they give exceptional, museum standard, archival life.

Fujifilm UK have also introduced Boxiprint, an innovative instant canvas wrap box frame product, aimed at retail applications. Boxiprint box frames are supplied as single sheets of high quality satin canvas mounted on carton board. They come pressed and scored with a patented scheme of ingenious folds, enabling each board to be simply folded by hand into a finished box frame canvas, just minutes after printing on an inkjet printer.

Boxiprint instant canvas box frames can be printed on most professional inkjets that have a straight paper path and a ‘board’ setting, allowing them to accept boards up to 1.7mm thick. This includes all Fujifilm Epson Stylus Pro printers supplied as GreenBox bundles, as well as many other printers. The product is ideal for retail photo labs, and is also suitable for portrait studios, art and framing businesses, and the gift and card sector. Boxiprint is easy to use, but for added peace of mind the product is supported with ICC colour profiles for many Fujifilm Epson Stylus Pro printers, and print templates for Fujifilm

Graphistudio is to launch Graphiware, a new design of software created to give photographers an amazing tool in today’s competitive and highly creative market at Focus 2009.

It’s powerful, yet easy to use. You can gather your images and design your own layout with the option to use Graphistudio’s renowned multi-award winning templates, modify them to suit your needs or even design from scratch your own. The simple drag and drop logic of Graphiware will enable you to design stunning layouts in minutes, adding effects, re-touching elements with Photoshop and much, much more.

At the same time, Graphistudio has created a new on-line ordering system, dedicated to making production faster, efficient and more cost effective Gone are the days of hand written or typed orders. Now with a few taps of the keyboard the huge choice of sizes, orientations, covers and copies can be chosen and directly loaded into the system live at the same time as you upload your order or it will await delivery of your disk, negatives or prints.

Very few companies worldwide can look back with pride over such a long and rich tradition as Hahnemühle. Since its founding in 1584 Hahnemühle in Dassel has demonstrated its superb mastery of a traditional craft, creating uniquely beautiful papers from pure spring water and premium cellulose.

Using this rich experience enables the company to be at the forefront of the ever evolving digital inkjet market as well as the realm of traditional artists paper. Recent technological advances such as its true Baryta papers which enable photographers to recreate darkroom prints digitally, newly released papers available in a 64 inch format to match the latest Giclee printing technology and environmentally friendly papers made from highly renewable resources such as bamboo and cotton rag.

To celebrate its 425 year anniversary Hahnemühle will release an exclusive Anniversary Collection Box. This Anniversary Edition consists of an elegant cotton rag paper with a particularly smooth texture for Fine Art images as well as other special anniversary products. It’s all packaged in a unique presentation box designed exclusively by Prat, Paris.

There is another exciting new addition to our environmentally friendly range of products. Hahnemühle Sugar Cane is made from 75 percent sugar cane fibre. The organic by-product of sugar cane processing is used to make a pulp. This pulp or “bagasse” is an eco-friendly renewable resource endorsed by environmental organizations. Cotton fibres extracted from recycling our own paper surplus make up the remaining 25 percent of raw material used to produce the paper. The result is a natural white Fine Art paper extremely resistant to ageing. The premium inkjet coating guarantees Fine Art images rich in contrast and detail, and the texture of this artist paper has a wonderful feel to it. Hahnemühle Sugar Cane is ideal for warm toned colour and monochrome prints of Fine Art photography and art reproductions. This Paper will have its UK debut as an exclusive preview at Focus.

Luminati says that once again it will be setting out to capture photographers’ imaginations, delivering a range of acrylic frames which are said to push the boundaries for the professional image maker.

Clear2C Professional with its diamond polished flush fronted finish and unique magnet back panel, has been a great success following its launch at Focus on Imaging 2008. Launched as a 15mm thick frame, the range was extended to include the sleeker 9mm thick Impression range. Following customer feedback Luminati also introduced a range of panoramic formats.

This year sees Luminati extend the Clear2C range further with their Capture, and Snap frames. A unique front image holder allows images to be mounted and changed with ease, whilst the frame hangs on the wall. The Clear2C Professional, Impression, Capture, and Snap frames are available in a range of colours, and in single aperture, multiple aperture, and panoramic aperture formats. Luminati experts will be on hand to demonstrate the range, but are just as keen to discuss visitors’ needs, and would welcome discussions regards the need for unique sizes and formats.

Middlewall remain one of the few British wedding album manufacturers who continue to produce quality hand made, non imported traditional albums, ranging from size 5×5 to 12×12.

They have extended their range of Digital Albums with various styles and sizes including silk and aluminium finishes and see the latest ‘Triangle’ Digital Album.

The Oxford (sticky!) album can be designed to any specific requests with a choice of adhesive or non adhesive pages, embossed photo relief frame, a vast choice of material finishes, personalisation and corners.

Middlewall have recently launched MacLab Limited a new sister company, which specialises in digital printing with full photographic prints on Fuji Crystal Archive paper, up to an astounding 24ins x100 ins.

This year for Focus onOne Software will be showing new products, including the brand new PhotoFrame 4 and the new plug-ins for Adobe Photoshop Light Room and Apple’s Aperture, along with many of its existing highly successful software products.

Every day of the show visitors will be given the chance of winning Lastolite equipment worth £250 if they buy an onOne software product. When the customer makes an onOne software purchase they will be given a raffle ticket and entered in to the draw, all they have to do is return at the end of the day with their raffle ticket and their receipt as a proof of purchase and wait for the winner to be called.

On show will also be the new Essentials for iPhoto. This is very similar to the Essentials for Elements, as they both have “Make it better” (the ColourTune half of PhotoTune), “Frame it” (reduced version of PhotoFrame) and “Enlarge it” (reduced version of Genuine Fractals). The difference between the two is that Essentials for Elements has “Cut it out” (reduced version of Mask Pro) and Essentials for iPhoto has “Blur it” (full version of FocalPoint). Not forgetting products such as Genuine fractals 5, Mask Pro 4 and PhotoTools 1.0, PhotoFrame 3.1 and PhotoTune 2.2 these plug-in favorites are still going strong and will be making an appearance at Focus

There’s also the all-new PhotoFrame 4 which comes in two editions – Professional and Standard – and new plug-ins for Lightroom and Aperture

The Open College of the Arts is a creative arts college specialising in distance learning, with courses, which can be entirely studied at home, spanning a wide range of disciplines, and including three new ones, People and Place, Creative Digital Film and Visual Studies. The OCA’s Photography courses have been written by Michael Freeman, one of the world’s most widely published photography authors. Course materials are practically based and set out clear programmes of work that develop practical expertise and stimulate critical and formal awareness.

All OCA courses are supported by one-to-one tuition. OCA tutors are experienced teachers and practising artists in their fields. This combination of professional expertise with a strong background in teaching means you can be confident in your tutor’s ability to help you develop your skills and to provide supportive and constructive feedback.

OCA courses are open to anyone and you can enrol at anytime. You can study with us for pleasure, to explore your creativity, to learn new skills or to gain a degree.

New Eco-Flo systems for the new Epson R1900 and R2880 will come under the spotlight on the Permajet stand along with a new addition to the Portrait family of papers. Portrait Velvet 310gsm has a 100 percent white cotton rag base with an ultra smooth surface that has all the characteristics of Permajet’s popular and successful Portrait 300 and Portrait White 285 product.

“The moment you pick up this beautiful velvet smooth surface,” says the company, “you immediately appreciate the paper for what it is, a wonderful fine art product that exhibits an extremely high Dmax making it ideal for monochrome as well as colour reproductions.”

The stand, which will feature a number of special show offers, will also showcase a range of photoBooks developed for the artist, photographer, graphic designer, educational market and others. They’re described as ideal for photographic/fine art work, personal portfolios, photo books, albums, school projects and much more and “best of all,” adds Permajet, “no heat binding is required.”

As well as offering live quotes Photoguard will be giving visitors the opportunity to photograph a professional model, something which was well received last year with many professional and budding photographers scrambling to get a good picture.

Photoguard will also be offering a free-prize draw, worth up to a value of £500. No need to answer any difficult questions, simply fill in your contact details and drop your entry into a box for a chance to win.

In addition, the stand will be offering 10 percent off the cost of policies to all those who take a leaflet, so when it’s renewal time test our quote and find out how we fare. “We’re so confident in our prices we offer a price guarantee of double the difference if you find a better deal elsewhere,” says Photoguard.

Photomart will once again be featuring “loads of exciting new products” on their Focus stand. Alongside the UK’s leading "nanobook" press, the Imijit, exclusively by Photomart, in the limelight will be latest retail solutions from Sony including the new "Super" Snaplab and Sony kiosk, Mitsubishi Electric’s new EasyPhoto consumer station and their high volume drylab solution or "MPU", Fujifilm’s Frontier DL-410 and Silverlab’s ML-9000 drylab solution. Fomei, the people who helped develop bandw multicontrast paper emulsions, will have their range of wide format media on display as well as their latest retail offering, the MicroLab system. On the studio side, some of the biggest names in photographic studio lighting will be featured with live lighting demonstrations by top photographers and models. There will also be demonstrations of the “amazing” PhotoRobot. This heralds in a revolution in product photography for the web allowing the viewer to see a product from any angle by manipulating the image along any three-dimensional axis with the mouse pointer.

First time Focus exhibitors at Focus, Premier Ink and Photographic is a family-owned photography retailer, based in Leamington Spa, founded seven years ago, and still run by the original core staff. Its stand will be packed full of “Show Specials”, with something of interest for all photographers, professionals, amateurs and enthusiasts alike.

There will be a huge range of photographic consumables on display, and available to buy on the day, including: square filters, circular threaded filters, DSLR camera batteries and battery grips, memory cards, inkjet papers and inkjet cartridges. There will also be “Show Deals” across our entire range, with products from many manufacturers, including Epson, Canon, HP, Ilford, Kood, Cokin, Energizer, Hahnel, and Sandisk.

Praktica’s back at Focus again, this time with a more prominent stand which will help the company place special emphasis on developing links with independent high street retailers. National sales manager David Grandison will be on hand to show current and prospective trade and retail customers the company’s 2009 range of digital cameras, digital frames and binoculars.

With over 20 years experience in the UK recording, broadcast and film-making industries, Protape is a provider of quality blank recording products, offering a wide range of digital data storage, video and audio formats to customers throughout the UK. Established in 1989, the business is located in London’s West End.

Protape supplies a wide range of quality blank recording products that come directly from the UK branches of the world leading manufactures such as Sony, Fuji and Panasonic and are stored in the Protape’s local depot to ensure a swift delivery. The products include digital data storage, hard drives, memory sticks and accessories, audio and video tapes, making them perfect for a wide range of customers, and they are available for purchase online and over the phone.

At Focus it will be offering a range of recording products at discounted rates, together with a range of consumer hard drives, CDs, DVDs, memory sticks, Blu-ray discs and other popular formats.

Bob Rigby’s will be showing their range of imported lines, including Acratech Ball Heads, Wimberley Gimbal heads, Pinhole Cameras and the Shutterbeam system. A full range of tripods and heads from Gitzo, Manfrotto and solutions for computer work from Wacom tablets and OnOne software. There will also be a range of accessories for all photographic needs, be it digital or traditional

SRB-Griturn is a manufacturer of adaptors and supplier of camera and photographic accessories. It will be introducing its very own slide copier for use with DSLRs and compact digital cameras, as well as showing its better known, filters, adaptors, stepping rings and much more. The company also has its own specialist manufacturing service, which it will be happy to discuss with Focus visitors.

Towergate Camerasure is one of the UK’s leading providers of insurance to the photographic, video and multi media industries, and offers competitive quotations whilst providing one of the most comprehensive policies within the market.

It will be offering exclusive Focus 2009 rates across the whole range of products available and, once again, there will be the Towergate Camerasure Free Prize draw where a year’s free insurance up to the value of £1500.00 can be won.

“Be inspired this Focus” is the message from Annabel Williams’ Contemporary Photographic Training with Catherine Connor and Jane Breakell hosting informal sessions for photographers needing training advice and support. Sessions are completely free and will give advice on which is the best training route, in order to meet both photographic aspirations and educational needs. The CPT stand will host a team of experts, dedicated to ensuring those that visit the stand gain the best form of insight and direction.

Zund UK will be exhibiting for the first time at Focus 2009. It will be showing one of its digital cutting systems complete with the appropriate tooling to show all aspects of finishing. With its modular tooling concept the system can be configured to X/Y trim roll or sheet fed media such as photographs, posters, banners and so on. A simple tool change is all that’s needed for the system to produce photo mounts or even rout thicker substrates such as acrylic, Perspex and so on.

Sometimes companies invest heavily in equipment such as digital printers without any consideration as to how the printed product will be finished, thus causing a bottleneck and inefficiencies in the production process. The Zund range of products is said to fit perfectly into the workflow eliminating these scenarios.

Focus on Imaging 2009 takes place as usual in Halls 9 and 10 at the NEC. It opens on Sunday, February 22nd, and runs until Wednesday, February 25th.

Check out the Focus on Imaging website to find everything there you need to know and a whole lot more as well about Europe’s biggest annual imaging event.

Trade, business and professional visitors can pre-register for free admission via the website. Admission for non-trade or non-professional visitors, including amateurs, who are also very welcome, remains at £6.00 but they can save time on the day by registering in advance via the Focus website.

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: SR-71 Blackbird (starboard profile)
where professional models meet
Image by Chris Devers
See more photos of this, and the Wikipedia article.

Details, quoting from Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird:

No reconnaissance aircraft in history has operated globally in more hostile airspace or with such complete impunity than the SR-71, the world’s fastest jet-propelled aircraft. The Blackbird’s performance and operational achievements placed it at the pinnacle of aviation technology developments during the Cold War.

This Blackbird accrued about 2,800 hours of flight time during 24 years of active service with the U.S. Air Force. On its last flight, March 6, 1990, Lt. Col. Ed Yielding and Lt. Col. Joseph Vida set a speed record by flying from Los Angeles to Washington, D.C., in 1 hour, 4 minutes, and 20 seconds, averaging 3,418 kilometers (2,124 miles) per hour. At the flight’s conclusion, they landed at Washington-Dulles International Airport and turned the airplane over to the Smithsonian.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Manufacturer:
Lockheed Aircraft Corporation

Designer:
Clarence L. "Kelly" Johnson

Date:
1964

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 55ft 7in. x 107ft 5in., 169998.5lb. (5.638m x 16.942m x 32.741m, 77110.8kg)
Other: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 107ft 5in. x 55ft 7in. (5.638m x 32.741m x 16.942m)

Materials:
Titanium

Physical Description:
Twin-engine, two-seat, supersonic strategic reconnaissance aircraft; airframe constructed largley of titanium and its alloys; vertical tail fins are constructed of a composite (laminated plastic-type material) to reduce radar cross-section; Pratt and Whitney J58 (JT11D-20B) turbojet engines feature large inlet shock cones.

Long Description:
No reconnaissance aircraft in history has operated in more hostile airspace or with such complete impunity than the SR-71 Blackbird. It is the fastest aircraft propelled by air-breathing engines. The Blackbird’s performance and operational achievements placed it at the pinnacle of aviation technology developments during the Cold War. The airplane was conceived when tensions with communist Eastern Europe reached levels approaching a full-blown crisis in the mid-1950s. U.S. military commanders desperately needed accurate assessments of Soviet worldwide military deployments, particularly near the Iron Curtain. Lockheed Aircraft Corporation’s subsonic U-2 (see NASM collection) reconnaissance aircraft was an able platform but the U. S. Air Force recognized that this relatively slow aircraft was already vulnerable to Soviet interceptors. They also understood that the rapid development of surface-to-air missile systems could put U-2 pilots at grave risk. The danger proved reality when a U-2 was shot down by a surface to air missile over the Soviet Union in 1960.

Lockheed’s first proposal for a new high speed, high altitude, reconnaissance aircraft, to be capable of avoiding interceptors and missiles, centered on a design propelled by liquid hydrogen. This proved to be impracticable because of considerable fuel consumption. Lockheed then reconfigured the design for conventional fuels. This was feasible and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), already flying the Lockheed U-2, issued a production contract for an aircraft designated the A-12. Lockheed’s clandestine ‘Skunk Works’ division (headed by the gifted design engineer Clarence L. "Kelly" Johnson) designed the A-12 to cruise at Mach 3.2 and fly well above 18,288 m (60,000 feet). To meet these challenging requirements, Lockheed engineers overcame many daunting technical challenges. Flying more than three times the speed of sound generates 316° C (600° F) temperatures on external aircraft surfaces, which are enough to melt conventional aluminum airframes. The design team chose to make the jet’s external skin of titanium alloy to which shielded the internal aluminum airframe. Two conventional, but very powerful, afterburning turbine engines propelled this remarkable aircraft. These power plants had to operate across a huge speed envelope in flight, from a takeoff speed of 334 kph (207 mph) to more than 3,540 kph (2,200 mph). To prevent supersonic shock waves from moving inside the engine intake causing flameouts, Johnson’s team had to design a complex air intake and bypass system for the engines.

Skunk Works engineers also optimized the A-12 cross-section design to exhibit a low radar profile. Lockheed hoped to achieve this by carefully shaping the airframe to reflect as little transmitted radar energy (radio waves) as possible, and by application of special paint designed to absorb, rather than reflect, those waves. This treatment became one of the first applications of stealth technology, but it never completely met the design goals.

Test pilot Lou Schalk flew the single-seat A-12 on April 24, 1962, after he became airborne accidentally during high-speed taxi trials. The airplane showed great promise but it needed considerable technical refinement before the CIA could fly the first operational sortie on May 31, 1967 – a surveillance flight over North Vietnam. A-12s, flown by CIA pilots, operated as part of the Air Force’s 1129th Special Activities Squadron under the "Oxcart" program. While Lockheed continued to refine the A-12, the U. S. Air Force ordered an interceptor version of the aircraft designated the YF-12A. The Skunk Works, however, proposed a "specific mission" version configured to conduct post-nuclear strike reconnaissance. This system evolved into the USAF’s familiar SR-71.

Lockheed built fifteen A-12s, including a special two-seat trainer version. Two A-12s were modified to carry a special reconnaissance drone, designated D-21. The modified A-12s were redesignated M-21s. These were designed to take off with the D-21 drone, powered by a Marquart ramjet engine mounted on a pylon between the rudders. The M-21 then hauled the drone aloft and launched it at speeds high enough to ignite the drone’s ramjet motor. Lockheed also built three YF-12As but this type never went into production. Two of the YF-12As crashed during testing. Only one survives and is on display at the USAF Museum in Dayton, Ohio. The aft section of one of the "written off" YF-12As which was later used along with an SR-71A static test airframe to manufacture the sole SR-71C trainer. One SR-71 was lent to NASA and designated YF-12C. Including the SR-71C and two SR-71B pilot trainers, Lockheed constructed thirty-two Blackbirds. The first SR-71 flew on December 22, 1964. Because of extreme operational costs, military strategists decided that the more capable USAF SR-71s should replace the CIA’s A-12s. These were retired in 1968 after only one year of operational missions, mostly over southeast Asia. The Air Force’s 1st Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron (part of the 9th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing) took over the missions, flying the SR-71 beginning in the spring of 1968.

After the Air Force began to operate the SR-71, it acquired the official name Blackbird– for the special black paint that covered the airplane. This paint was formulated to absorb radar signals, to radiate some of the tremendous airframe heat generated by air friction, and to camouflage the aircraft against the dark sky at high altitudes.

Experience gained from the A-12 program convinced the Air Force that flying the SR-71 safely required two crew members, a pilot and a Reconnaissance Systems Officer (RSO). The RSO operated with the wide array of monitoring and defensive systems installed on the airplane. This equipment included a sophisticated Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) system that could jam most acquisition and targeting radar. In addition to an array of advanced, high-resolution cameras, the aircraft could also carry equipment designed to record the strength, frequency, and wavelength of signals emitted by communications and sensor devices such as radar. The SR-71 was designed to fly deep into hostile territory, avoiding interception with its tremendous speed and high altitude. It could operate safely at a maximum speed of Mach 3.3 at an altitude more than sixteen miles, or 25,908 m (85,000 ft), above the earth. The crew had to wear pressure suits similar to those worn by astronauts. These suits were required to protect the crew in the event of sudden cabin pressure loss while at operating altitudes.

To climb and cruise at supersonic speeds, the Blackbird’s Pratt & Whitney J-58 engines were designed to operate continuously in afterburner. While this would appear to dictate high fuel flows, the Blackbird actually achieved its best "gas mileage," in terms of air nautical miles per pound of fuel burned, during the Mach 3+ cruise. A typical Blackbird reconnaissance flight might require several aerial refueling operations from an airborne tanker. Each time the SR-71 refueled, the crew had to descend to the tanker’s altitude, usually about 6,000 m to 9,000 m (20,000 to 30,000 ft), and slow the airplane to subsonic speeds. As velocity decreased, so did frictional heat. This cooling effect caused the aircraft’s skin panels to shrink considerably, and those covering the fuel tanks contracted so much that fuel leaked, forming a distinctive vapor trail as the tanker topped off the Blackbird. As soon as the tanks were filled, the jet’s crew disconnected from the tanker, relit the afterburners, and again climbed to high altitude.

Air Force pilots flew the SR-71 from Kadena AB, Japan, throughout its operational career but other bases hosted Blackbird operations, too. The 9th SRW occasionally deployed from Beale AFB, California, to other locations to carryout operational missions. Cuban missions were flown directly from Beale. The SR-71 did not begin to operate in Europe until 1974, and then only temporarily. In 1982, when the U.S. Air Force based two aircraft at Royal Air Force Base Mildenhall to fly monitoring mission in Eastern Europe.

When the SR-71 became operational, orbiting reconnaissance satellites had already replaced manned aircraft to gather intelligence from sites deep within Soviet territory. Satellites could not cover every geopolitical hotspot so the Blackbird remained a vital tool for global intelligence gathering. On many occasions, pilots and RSOs flying the SR-71 provided information that proved vital in formulating successful U. S. foreign policy. Blackbird crews provided important intelligence about the 1973 Yom Kippur War, the Israeli invasion of Lebanon and its aftermath, and pre- and post-strike imagery of the 1986 raid conducted by American air forces on Libya. In 1987, Kadena-based SR-71 crews flew a number of missions over the Persian Gulf, revealing Iranian Silkworm missile batteries that threatened commercial shipping and American escort vessels.

As the performance of space-based surveillance systems grew, along with the effectiveness of ground-based air defense networks, the Air Force started to lose enthusiasm for the expensive program and the 9th SRW ceased SR-71 operations in January 1990. Despite protests by military leaders, Congress revived the program in 1995. Continued wrangling over operating budgets, however, soon led to final termination. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration retained two SR-71As and the one SR-71B for high-speed research projects and flew these airplanes until 1999.

On March 6, 1990, the service career of one Lockheed SR-71A Blackbird ended with a record-setting flight. This special airplane bore Air Force serial number 64-17972. Lt. Col. Ed Yeilding and his RSO, Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Vida, flew this aircraft from Los Angeles to Washington D.C. in 1 hour, 4 minutes, and 20 seconds, averaging a speed of 3,418 kph (2,124 mph). At the conclusion of the flight, ‘972 landed at Dulles International Airport and taxied into the custody of the Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum. At that time, Lt. Col. Vida had logged 1,392.7 hours of flight time in Blackbirds, more than that of any other crewman.

This particular SR-71 was also flown by Tom Alison, a former National Air and Space Museum’s Chief of Collections Management. Flying with Detachment 1 at Kadena Air Force Base, Okinawa, Alison logged more than a dozen ‘972 operational sorties. The aircraft spent twenty-four years in active Air Force service and accrued a total of 2,801.1 hours of flight time.

Wingspan: 55’7"
Length: 107’5"
Height: 18’6"
Weight: 170,000 Lbs

Reference and Further Reading:

Crickmore, Paul F. Lockheed SR-71: The Secret Missions Exposed. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 1996.

Francillon, Rene J. Lockheed Aircraft Since 1913. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1987.

Johnson, Clarence L. Kelly: More Than My Share of It All. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1985.

Miller, Jay. Lockheed Martin’s Skunk Works. Leicester, U.K.: Midland Counties Publishing Ltd., 1995.

Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird curatorial file, Aeronautics Division, National Air and Space Museum.

DAD, 11-11-01

When beauty meets nostalgia
where professional models meet
Image by gwilmore
I went on a Flickr outing one evening, to a Phoenix restaurant called MacAlpine’s. I had never been there before, but the excursion was organized by cobalt123, whose judgment I know I can trust where such things are concerned. I told my wife before I left that I didn’t know anything about the place, other than that it was some kind of restaurant; but that I knew from experience that cobalt was familiar with so many interesting but little-known places in the area that I was sure I would come back with a few good images.

Nothing quite prepared me for THIS, however. She was the VERY first thing I noticed when I entered the place, and not just because I have a good eye for pretty women, although that was part of it. I also love bright, vivid colors — note her dress — and history, and I am a World War II buff in particular. I thought I had stepped back in time more than 60 years, and for a fleeting moment it occurred to me to look around the place to see if a B-17 crew was there, taking a break before going overseas to join up with the Eighth Air Force.

Cobalt, who knows me well, had already told this waitress that I would want to take her picture, which I did — more than a dozen of them, in fact. She could not possibly have been more gracious or more cooperative, and I left her a nice tip. We talked about Iwo Jima, the Normandy invasion, the Doolittle Raid, Anzio, the Memphis Belle, veterans we had known, and other related topics, about all of which she was quite knowledgeable. Considering my personality and interests, I simply could not have asked for a more perfect model.

When I first posted the image, I intentionally refrained from mentioning this young woman’s name, out of respect for her and a wish not to give her unwanted publicity if she didn’t like the picture. But she has since informed me that the loves the image, and that I have permission to refer to her by name. This is Miss Amanda Lee, whose website may be found here. In addition to her waitressing, she happens to be a part-time professional model, which is no surprise at all to me. World War II-era styles are her specialty, as this image makes obvious.

Meanwhile, cobalt and I both consider this to be absolutely, unquestionably the best portrait I have ever taken. I can’t BELIEVE I took this picture, and I hope all of you folks enjoy it as much as we have.

This is an afterthought, but there will be other images posted from this excursion over the next day or two; however, among all of them, this one reigns supreme, and I want it to have some time in the spotlight all by itself.

(Update: Flickr member danielgreene captured this image of Amanda and me, at roughly the same time I took my own picture, showcased here on Flickr. I am obviously doing something with the camera, but the whole time I was taking pictures of her, we chatted practically nonstop; so when his was taken, I’m sure we were also talking about Iwo Jima, or some other topic relating to the big war.

Incidentally, she never really posed for me in any of the images, although she obviously paused a few moments for this one. I told her just to go about her work and pretend I wasn’t there, and we’d see what kind of results I got. So she went right on working — and we both went right on chatting. It was a delight, let me tell you!

Also, I have since published a companion image, and although I believe this is the far better of the two, I invite comments and comparisons. The other portrait of Amanda may be seen here, but I like this one so much better that in conversations and correspondence with family and friends, I have begun referring to it simply as The Portrait.)

(2nd update: Thanks to all of your views, faves, and comments, this one has made Explore, where it is ranked #199 as I add this update. I have never been more delighted to see one of my pictures show up there, and I regard it as a singular honor both to Amanda and to myself. You folks are great!)

MM #132424

Jan 17

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